Adsorption and desorption of potentially toxic metals on modified biosorbents through new green grafting process Research Article First Online: 23 February 2018 Abstract
Six lignocellulosic waste-derived biosorbents [cantaloupe peel (CAN), pine cone (PC), litchi fruit peel (LP), annona squamosal (AS), bamboo shoot (BS), and sugarcane bagasse (SB)] were selected as low-cost and renewable materials to prepare chemically modified biosorbent. The modified biosorbent was prepared through a newer carboxyl groups-grafting process onto the biosorbent’s surface using acrylic acid. The results showed that the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of biosorbents increased by approximately 66.3–104% after modified. The modified biosorbent exhibited significantly higher adsorption capacity of Pb
2+, Cu 2+, and Cd 2+ ions than the pristine biosorbent. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity ( Q o max) of both pristine and modified biosorbents toward three metal ions (Pb 2+, Cu 2+, and Cd 2+) followed the decreasing order: CAN > PC > LP > AS > BS > SB. The preference ranking of three metal ions on the pristine and modified biosorbents (mmol/kg) was generally in the order: Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Cd 2+. Among these biosorbents, cantaloupe peel exhibited an excellent adsorption affinity to metal cations compared to the five others. The Q o max values of modified and pristine cantaloupe peels were ordered as follows: 143.2 and 81.1 mg/g for Pb 2+ adsorption, > 45.4 and 30.4 mg/g for Cd 2+ adsorption, > 33.1 and 23.5 mg/g for Cu 2+ adsorption. After five adsorption–desorption cycles, the removal efficiency of Pb 2+ by modified CAN was maintained at around 70%. The ion exchange played a determining role in adsorption mechanism. It can be concluded that modified cantaloupe peel can serve as a newer and promising biosorbent with a high adsorption capacity to various potentially toxic metals. Keywords Biosorption Acrylic acid Heavy metal Biosorbent Grafting process Ion exchange
Responsible editor: Guilherme L. Dotto
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (
) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1295-9
A correction to this article is available online at
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2770-z Notes Acknowledgements
This current work was financially supported by Chung Yuan Christian University (CYCU) in Taiwan.
Abdolali A, Ngo HH, Guo W, Zhou JL, Du B, Wei Q, Wang XC, Nguyen PD (2015) Characterization of a multi-metal binding biosorbent: chemical modification and desorption studies. Bioresour Technol 193:477–487.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.123 CrossRef Google Scholar
Álvarez-Ayuso E, García-Sánchez A (2003) Removal of heavy metals from waste waters by natural and Na-exchanged bentonites. Clay Clay Miner 51(5):475–480.
https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.2003.0510501 CrossRef Google Scholar
An HK, Park BY, Kim DS (2001) Crab shell for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Water Res 35(15):3551–3556.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00099-9 CrossRef Google Scholar
Anna B, Kleopas M, Constantine S, Anestis F, Maria B (2015) Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) onto natural bentonite: study in mono- and multi-metal systems. Environ Earth Sci 73:5435–5444.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3798-0 CrossRef Google Scholar
Apiratikul R, Pavasant P (2008) Sorption of Cu
, and Pb
using modified zeolite from coal fly ash. Chem Eng J 144(2):245–258.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.01.038 CrossRef Google Scholar
Barakat MA (2011) New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab J Chem 4(4):361–377.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2010.07.019 CrossRef Google Scholar
Basso MC, Cerrella EG, Cukierman AL (2002) Activated carbons developed from a rapidly renewable biosource for removal of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from dilute aqueous solutions. Ind Eng Chem Res 41(2):180–189.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ie010664x CrossRef Google Scholar
Brown P, Atly Jefcoat I, Parrish D, Gill S, Graham E (2000) Evaluation of the adsorptive capacity of peanut hull pellets for heavy metals in solution. Adv Environ Res 4:19–29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(00)00004-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Fakhre NA, Ibrahim BM (2018) The use of new chemically modified cellulose for heavy metal ion adsorption. J Hazard Mater 343:324–331.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.08.043 CrossRef Google Scholar
Feng N, Guo X, Liang S (2009) Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel. J Hazard Mater 164:1286–1292.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.096 CrossRef Google Scholar
Gedik K, Imamoglu I (2008) Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite: influence of pretreatment and regeneration. J Hazard Mater 155(1-2):385–392.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.12.101 CrossRef Google Scholar
Huang FC, Lee CK, Han YL, Chao WC, Chao HP (2014) Preparation of activated carbon using micro-nano carbon spheres through chemical activation. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45(5):2805–2812.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2014.08.004 CrossRef Google Scholar
Iqbal M, Saeed A, Zafar SI (2009) FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd
removal by mango peel waste. J Hazard Mater 164:161–171.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.141 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kumar R, Sharma RK, Singh AP (2017) Cellulose based grafted biosorbents—journey from lignocellulose biomass to toxic metal ions sorption applications—a review. J Mol Liq 232:62–93.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2017.02.050 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kweon DK, Choi JK, Kim EK, Lim ST (2001) Adsorption of divalent metal ions by succinylated and oxidized corn starches. Carbohydr Polym 46(2):171–177.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00300-3 CrossRef Google Scholar
Lasheen MR, Ammar NS, Ibrahim HS (2012) Adsorption/desorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: equilibrium and kinetic studies. J Solid State Chem 14:202–210.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2011.11.029 CrossRef Google Scholar
Lee MG, Yi G, Ahn BJ, Roddick F (2000) Conversion of coal fly ash into zeolite and heavy metal removal characteristics of the products. Korean J Chem Eng 17(3):325–331.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02699048 CrossRef Google Scholar
Mihaly-Cozmuta L, Mihaly-Cozmuta A, Peter A, Nicula C, Tutu H, Silipas D, Indrea E (2014) Adsorption of heavy metal cations by Na-clinoptilolite: equilibrium and selectivity studies. J Environ Manag 137:69–80.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.02.007 CrossRef Google Scholar
Moreno-Castilla C (2004) Adsorption of organic molecules from aqueous solutions on carbon materials. Carbon 42(1):83–94.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2003.09.022 CrossRef Google Scholar
O’Connell DW, Birkinshaw C, O’Dwyer TF (2008) Heavy metal adsorbents prepared from the modification of cellulose: a review. Bioresour Technol 99:6709–6724.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.036 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pagnanelli F, Mainelli S, Vegliò F, Toro L (2003) Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterisation and equilibrium modelling. Chem Eng Sci 58(20):4709–4717.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2003.08.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Puranik PR, Paknikar KM (1999) Influence of co-cations on biosorption of lead and zinc—a comparative evaluation in binary and multimetal systems. Bioresour Technol 70(3):269–276.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00037-1 CrossRef Google Scholar
Querol X, Moreno N, Umaña JC, Alastuey A, Hernández E, López-Soler A, Plana F (2002) Synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash: an overview. Int J Coal Geol 50:413–423.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-5162(02)00124-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Reddad Z, Gerente C, Andres Y, Le Cloirec P (2002) Adsorption of several metal ions onto a low-cost biosorbent: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Environ Sci Technol 36(9):2067–2073.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es0102989 CrossRef Google Scholar
Robalds A, Naja GM, Klavins M (2016) Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption. J Hazard Mater 304:553–556.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.10.042 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sadegh H, Ali GAM, Gupta VK, Makhlouf ASH, Shahryari-ghoshekandi R, Nadagouda MN, Sillanpää M, Megiel E (2017) The role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents and their applications in wastewater treatment. J Nanostructure Chem 7(1):1–14.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40097-017-0219-4 CrossRef Google Scholar
Siegel FR (2002) Contaminant/natural background values: timing and processes. Pages 77–101 Environmental geochemistry of potentially toxic metals. Springer.
Son EB, Poo KM, Chang JS, Chae KJ (2018) Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions using engineered magnetic biochars derived from waste marine macro-algal biomass. Sci Total Environ 615:161–168.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.171 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sprynskyy M, Buszewski B, Terzyk AP, Namieśnik J (2006) Study of the selection mechanism of heavy metal (Pb
, and Cd2
) adsorption on clinoptilolite. J Colloid Interface Sci 304(1):21–28.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.068 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tran HN, Huang FC, Lee CK, Chao HP (2017a) Activated carbon derived from spherical hydrochar functionalized with triethylenetetramine: synthesis, characterizations, and adsorption application. Green Process Synth 6(6):565–576.
https://doi.org/10.1515/gps-2016-0178 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tran HN, Lee CK, Nguyen TV, Chao HP (2017b) Saccharide-derived microporous spherical biochar prepared from hydrothermal carbonization and different pyrolysis temperatures: synthesis, characterization, and application in water treatment. Environ Technol:1–14.
Tran HN, Lin CC, Chao HP (2018a) Amino acids-intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxides as dual-electronic adsorbent for effective removal of cationic and oxyanionic metal ions. Sep Sci Technol 192:36–45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2017.09.060 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tran HN, Viet PV, Chao HP (2018b) Surfactant modified zeolite as amphiphilic and dual-electronic adsorbent for removal of cationic and oxyanionic metal ions and organic compounds. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:55–63.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.08.027 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tran HN, You SJ, Chao HP (2016) Thermodynamic parameters of cadmium adsorption onto orange peel calculated from various methods: a comparison study. J Environ Chem Eng 4(3):2671–2682.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.05.009 CrossRef Google Scholar
Tran HN, You SJ, Chao HP (2017c) Activated carbons from golden shower upon different chemical activation methods: synthesis and characterizations. Adsorpt Sci Technol:026361741668483.
Tran HN, You SJ, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A, Chao HP (2017d) Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: a critical review. Water Res 120:88–116.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.04.014 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ünlü N, Ersoz M (2006) Adsorption characteristics of heavy metal ions onto a low cost biopolymeric sorbent from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 136(2):272–280.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.013 CrossRef Google Scholar
Wilson K, Yang H, Seo CW, Marshall WE (2006) Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells. Bioresour Technol 97(18):2266–2270.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.10.043 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yang T, Lua AC (2003) Characteristics of activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells by physical activation. J Colloid Interface Sci 267(2):408–417.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00689-1 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zubair M, Daud M, McKay G, Shehzad F, Al-Harthi MA (2017) Recent progress in layered double hydroxides (LDH)-containing hybrids as adsorbents for water remediation. Appl Clay Sci 143:279–292.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.04.002 CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018