Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4450–4461 | Cite as

Sonochemical degradation of triclosan in water in a multifrequency reactor

  • Lina Patricia VegaEmail author
  • Jafar Soltan
  • Gustavo A. Peñuela
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

Degradation of triclosan (TCS) by multifrequency ultrasound (US) was studied at high and low frequencies. Frequency effect on initial degradation rates was analyzed, and an optimum frequency was found. Power density always has a positive effect on degradation rates over the whole equipment work range. A reaction mechanism similar to that proposed by Serpone resulted in a pseudo-linear model that fitted statistically better than the nonlinear model proposed by Okitsu. Pulsed US showed a positive effect on degradation rates; however, simultaneous analysis of the effect of power, frequency, pulse time, and silent time did not show a clear trend for degradation as a function of pulse US variables. According to these results and those for degradation in the presence of radical scavengers, it was concluded that US TCS degradation was taking place in the bubble/liquid interface. A toxicity test was conducted by Microtox®, showing a decrease in toxicity as TCS concentration decreased and increase in toxicity after total depletion of TCS. Eight possible degradation by-products were identified by GC-MS analysis, and a degradation pathway was proposed.

Keywords

Advanced oxidation processes Kinetic models Sonochemistry Triclosan High-frequency ultrasound Triclosan toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank NSERC, the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE), and the ELAP program; the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS); the University of Saskatchewan; and the University of Antioquia for the support of this work.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1281_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2483 kb)

References

  1. Adewuyi YG, Oyenekan BA (2007) Optimization of a sonochemical process using a novel reactor and Taguchi statistical experimental design methodology. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:411–420.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie060844c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apfel RE (1981) 7. Acoustic cavitation. In: Ultrasonics. Series: Methods in experimental physics. Elsevier, New York, pp 355–411Google Scholar
  3. Aranami K, Readman JW (2007) Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Chemosphere 66:1052–1056.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behera SK, Oh SY, Park HS (2010) Sorption of triclosan onto activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite: effects of pH, ionic strength, and humic acid. J Hazard Mater 179:684–691.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blair E (1971) Chlorodioxins—origin and fate. American Chemical Society, Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiha M, Hamdaoui O, Baup S, Gondrexon N (2011) Sonolytic degradation of endocrine disrupting chemical 4-cumylphenol in water. Ultrason Sonochem 18:943–950.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Bel E, Janssen C, De Smet S et al (2011) Sonolysis of ciprofloxacin in aqueous solution: influence of operational parameters. Ultrason Sonochem 18:184–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farré M, Asperger D, Kantiani L et al (2008) Assessment of the acute toxicity of triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. Anal Bioanal Chem 390:1999–2007.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1779-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hayduk W, Laudie H (1974) Prediction of diffusion coefficients for nonelectrolytes in dilute aqueous solutions. AICHE J 20:611–615.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690200329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henglein A (1987) Sonochemistry: historical developments and modern aspects. Ultrasonics 25:6–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-624X(87)90003-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hites RA (2011) Dioxins: an overview and history . Environ Sci Technol 45:16–20.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es1013664 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ince NH, Gültekin I, Tezcanli-Güyer G (2009) Sonochemical destruction of nonylphenol: effects of pH and hydroxyl radical scavengers. J Hazard Mater 172:739–743.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khanna S, Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2013) Phase diagrams for dual frequency sonic processors using organic liquid medium. Chem Eng Sci 100:137–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2013.02.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kimura T, Sakamoto T, Leveque J et al (1996) Standardization of ultrasonic power for sonochemical reaction. Ultrason Sonochem 3:S157–S161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4177(96)00021-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kolpin DW, Kolpin DW, Furlong ET et al (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national Recoinnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36:1202–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es011055j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Latch DE, Packer JL, Arnold WA, McNeill K (2003) Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 158:63–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00103-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Latch DE, Packer JL, Stender BLB et al (2005) Aqueous photochemistry of triclosan: formation of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and oligomerization products. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:517–525.  https://doi.org/10.1897/04-243R.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lores M, Llompart M, Sanchez-Prado L et al (2005) Confirmation of the formation of dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the photodegradation of triclosan by photo-SPME. Anal Bioanal Chem 381:1294–1298.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-004-3047-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahamuni NN, Adewuyi YG (2010) Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation. Ultrason Sonochem 17:990–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mezcua M, Gómez MJ, Ferrer I et al (2004) Evidence of 2,7/2,8-dibenzodichloro-p-dioxin as a photodegradation product of triclosan in water and wastewater samples. Anal Chim Acta 524:241–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.05.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Munoz M, de Pedro ZM, Casas JA, Rodriguez JJ (2012) Triclosan breakdown by Fenton-like oxidation. Chem Eng J 198–199:275–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Naddeo V, Landi M, Scannapieco D, Belgiorno V (2013) Sonochemical degradation of twenty-three emerging contaminants in urban wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 51:6601–6608.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.769696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Okitsu K, Iwasaki K, Yobiko Y et al (2005) Sonochemical degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: a new heterogeneous kinetics model taking into account the local concentration of OH radicals and azo dyes. Ultrason Sonochem 12:255–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2004.01.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Okitsu K, Suzuki T, Takenaka N et al (2006) Acoustic multibubble cavitation in water: a new aspect of the effect of a rare gas atmosphere on bubble temperature and its relevance to sonochemistry. J Phys Chem B 110:20081–20084.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp064598u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Onorati F, Mecozzi M (2004) Effects of two diluents in the Microtox toxicity bioassay with marine sediments. Chemosphere 54:679–687.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pétrier C (2015) The use of power ultrasound for water treatment. In: Power ultrasonics. Applications of high-intensity ultrasound. Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, pp 939–972.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-028-6.00031-4
  27. Petrovic M (2003) Analysis and removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater and drinking water. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 22:685–696.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-9936(03)01105-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rule KL, Ebbett VR, Vikesland PJ (2005) Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Environ Sci Technol 39:3176–3185.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es048943+ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sabaliunas D, Webb SF, Hauk A et al (2003) Environmental fate of triclosan in the River Aire Basin, UK. Water Res 37:3145–3154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00164-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sanchez-Prado L, Barro R, Garcia-Jares C et al (2008) Sonochemical degradation of triclosan in water and wastewater. Ultrason Sonochem 15:689–694.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Serna-Galvis EA, Silva-Agredo J, Giraldo-Aguirre AL, Torres-Palma RA (2015) Sonochemical degradation of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine: effect of parameters, organic and inorganic additives and combination with a biological system. Sci Total Environ 524–525:354–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Serpone N, Terzian R, Hidaka H, Pelizzetti E (1994) Ultrasonic induced dehalogenation and oxidation of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol in air-equilibrated aqueous media. Similarities with irradiated semiconductor particulates. J Phys Chem 98:2634–2640.  https://doi.org/10.1021/j100061a021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sirés I, Oturan N, Oturan MA et al (2007) Electro-Fenton degradation of antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban. Electrochim Acta 52:5493–5503.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2007.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Son HS, Ko G, Zoh KD (2009) Kinetics and mechanism of photolysis and TiO2 photocatalysis of triclosan. J Hazard Mater 166:954–960.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Song Z, Wang N, Zhu L et al (2012) Efficient oxidative degradation of triclosan by using an enhanced Fenton-like process. Chem Eng J 198–199:379–387.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stamatis N, Antonopoulou M, Hela D, Konstantinou I (2014) Photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanisms of antibacterial triclosan in aqueous TiO 2 suspensions under simulated solar irradiation. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 89:1145–1154.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4387 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Summoogum SL, Altarawneh M, Mackie JC et al (2012) Oxidation of dibenzo-p-dioxin: formation of initial products, 2-methylbenzofuran and 3-hydro-2-methylenebenzofuran. Combust Flame 159:3056–3065.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thangavadivel K, Megharaj M, Mudhoo A, Naidu R (2012) Degradation of organic pollutants using ultrasound. Handb Appl Ultrason Sonochem Sustain 447–474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/b11012-19
  39. Tohidi F, Cai Z (2015) GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4289-x Google Scholar
  40. van Iersel MM, Benes NE, Keurentjes JTF (2008) Importance of acoustic shielding in sonochemistry. Ultrason Sonochem 15:294–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2007.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wong-Wah-Chung P, Rafqah S, Voyard G, Sarakha M (2007) Photochemical behaviour of triclosan in aqueous solutions: kinetic and analytical studies. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 191:201–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2007.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu Q, Shi H, Adams CD et al (2012) Oxidative removal of selected endocrine-disruptors and pharmaceuticals in drinking water treatment systems, and identification of degradation products of triclosan. Sci Total Environ 439:18–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xiao R, Diaz-rivera D, He Z, Weavers LK (2013a) Using pulsed wave ultrasound to evaluate the suitability of hydroxyl radical scavengers in sonochemical systems. Ultrason Sonochem 20:990–996.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xiao R, Diaz-Rivera D, Weavers LK (2013b) Factors influencing pharmaceutical and personal care product degradation in aqueous solution using pulsed wave ultrasound. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:2824–2831.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie303052a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xiao R, Wei Z, Chen D, Weavers LK (2014) Kinetics and mechanism of sonochemical degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 48:9675–9683.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es5016197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang L, Rathman JF, Weavers LK (2005) Degradation of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants by pulsed ultrasound. J Phys Chem B 109:16203–16209.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0523221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu JC, Kwong TY, Luo Q, Cai Z (2006) Photocatalytic oxidation of triclosan. Chemosphere 65:390–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zúñiga-Benítez H, Soltan J, Peñuela GA (2016) Application of ultrasound for degradation of benzophenone-3 in aqueous solutions. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:77–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-015-0842-x

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Patricia Vega
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jafar Soltan
    • 1
  • Gustavo A. Peñuela
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Grupo GDCON, Facultad de Ingeniería, Sede de Investigación Universitaria (SIU)Universidad de AntioquiaMedellínColombia

Personalised recommendations