Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 32, pp 31895–31905 | Cite as

Combined treatment of contaminated soil with a bacterial Stenotrophomonas strain DXZ9 and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) enhances DDT and DDE remediation

  • Hui XieEmail author
  • Lusheng ZhuEmail author
  • Jun Wang
13th IHPA Forum and selected studies on POPs


Bioremediation of contaminated soils by a combinational approach using specific bacterial species together with ryegrass is a promising strategy, resulting in potentially highly efficient degradation of organic contaminants. The present study tested the combination of strain DXZ9 of Stenotrophomonas sp. with ryegrass to remove DDT and DDE contaminants from soil under natural conditions in a pot experiment. The strain DXZ9 was successfully colonized in the natural soil, resulting in removal rates of approximately 77% for DDT, 52% for DDE, and 65% for the two pollutants combined after 210 days. Treatment with ryegrass alone resulted in slightly lower removal rates (72 and 48%, respectively, 61% for both combined), while the combination of strain DXZ9 and ryegrass significantly (p < 0.05) improved the removal rates to 81% for DDT and 55% for DDE (69% for both). The half-life of the contaminants was significantly shorter in combined treatment with DXZ9 and ryegrass compared to the control. The remediation was mostly due to degradation of the contaminants, as the net uptake of DDT and DDE by the ryegrass accounted for less than 3% of the total amount in the soil. DDT is reductively dechlorinated to DDD and dehydrochlorinated to DDE in the soil; the metabolites of DDE and DDD were multiple undefined substances. The toxicity of the soil was significantly reduced as a result of the treatment. The present study demonstrates that the bioremediation of soil contaminated with DDT and DDE by means of specific bacteria combined with ryegrass is feasible.


Bioremediation DDT and DDE contaminated soil Stenotrophomonas sp. Ryegrass Soil detoxification 


Funding information

This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41671321) and National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFD0800304).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, College of Resources and EnvironmentShandong Agricultural UniversityTaianChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer ResourcesShandong Agricultural UniversityTaianChina

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