In this study, a composite remediation material for the enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in aqueous solution was prepared. This material was comprised of biochar as the carrier and adsorbent, and carrageenan (CG) as the embedding medium to entrap the organic carbon sources and zero-valent iron (ZVI). We determined the suitable biochar dosage and organic carbon source in the composite alongside the optimal preparation conditions. Furthermore, using an anaerobic microcosm study, we discussed the performance and possible mechanisms of the composite on 1,1,1-TCA removal in aqueous solution. From this, we found that the suitable dosage of biochar in water during the preparation of composite microspheres was 0.2% (w/v). Under this condition, the biochar had a strong capacity to adsorb 1,1,1-TCA with a removal efficiency of 84.2%. Soluble starch was selected as the appropriate organic carbon source, because starch-microspheres show an excellent slow-release effect in water. The optimal preparation conditions of microspheres were identified as follows: 2% CG (w/v) colloidal solution, 6% CaCl2 (w/v) solution, and a 12-h curing time. After 25-day incubation with the composite prepared under optimized conditions, the removal efficiency of 1,1,1-TCA was 95.68%, which was 24.69% higher than that observed in the microcosm with a commercial remediation material. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the amounts of ZVI and soluble starch inside the microsphere decreased obviously, while the biochar amount remained about the same. This indicates that 1,1,1-TCA in aqueous solution was mainly removed via soluble starch-enhanced biotic reductive dechlorination and ZVI-enhanced abiotic reductive dechlorination. The changes in microbial community structure demonstrate that the composite stimulated the activities of functional anaerobic bacteria, in particular, regarding dechlorination and fermentation abilities in the microcosm, therefore enhancing the anaerobic biodegradation of 1,1,1-TCA. This study suggests that the composite, entrapping biochar, ZVI, and organic carbon source in CG microspheres can significantly enhance the reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-TCA in aqueous solution. We anticipate this novel remediation material could be successfully applied to the in situ ERD remediation of natural groundwater mainly contaminated with 1,1,1-TCA.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41401357), the Shanghai Professional Development Funding, China (201528), the Shanghai Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (17DZ1202003), the Shanghai Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (13ZR1460200), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (SS2013AA062608).
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1.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resource and Environmental EngineeringEast China University of Science and TechnologyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
2.Shanghai Academy of Environmental SciencesShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China