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Watershed scale patterns in steroid hormones composition and content characters at a typical eutrophic lake in southeastern China

  • Fengsong ZhangEmail author
  • Qibiao Yu
  • Linsheng Yang
Research Article
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Natural steroid hormones in the aquatic environment have attracted increasing attention because of their strong endocrine disrupting potency. Seven steroid hormones (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) were analyzed from surface water and sediment sampled from Chaohu Lake, its upstream rivers (the Hangbu River, Nanfei River, Shiwuli River, and Pai River), drainage from the adjacent farmland, and treated and untreated municipal sewage. Concentrations of the seven target steroid hormones ranged from below the detection limit (ND) to 69.5 ng L−1 in the water of Chaohu Lake and the upstream rivers. Three steroids—estrone, estriol, and 17α-estradiol—were found in relatively high residual concentrations in the water, with maximum concentrations of 69.5 ng L−1, 51.5 ng L−1, and 23.3 ng L−1, respectively. All of the target steroid hormones except estriol were detected in the sediment in concentrations of ND–16344 ng kg−1. The dominant steroid hormone in the sediment of Chaohu Lake and the upstream rivers was 17α-estradiol. In the Shiwuli River and the Pai River, the dominant steroid hormones (estrone and estriol) were the same as those in the untreated municipal sewage. This confirmed the deduction that untreated municipal sewage was the major source of steroid hormone residues in these two rivers. The main steroid hormone in the water of the Hangbu River and Chaohu Lake was 17α-estradiol, the same as that in the farmland drainage. In addition, 17α-estradiol was verified as the major factor in the contribution of farmland drainage to the pollution in these rivers. The water in the Nanfei River had high concentrations of estriol and 17α-estradiol. This indicates that both untreated municipal sewage and farmland drainage were the major sources. The discharge of steroid hormones from the four rivers to Chaohu Lake was approximately 75.1 kg year−1, with the highest contributor being 17α-estradiol (24 kg year−1). Therefore, based on the results of this study, the farmland drainage should be controlled to reduce the steroid hormone pollution in Chaohu Lake.

Keywords

Estrogen Androgen Progestogen Wastewater Farmland drainage Chaohu lake 

Notes

Funding information

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41201513) and the Environmental Protection Public Welfare Program of China (201509074).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4120_MOESM1_ESM.docx (254 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 253 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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