Bioconcentration, behavioral, and biochemical effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in Daphnia magna
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is one of the most frequently studied as well as controversially discussed pharmaceutically active drug on the subject of its relevance to the environment. This study was conducted to assess the bioconcentration potential of diclofenac and its behavioral and biochemical effects in Daphnia magna. The bioconcentration factors of diclofenac determined after 48 h of aqueous exposure in Daphnia magna were 70.94 and 8.02 for the nominal exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg/L, respectively. Diclofenac exposure obviously decreased the filtration and ingestion rates of the daphnids. A significant increase of the acetylcholinesterase activity that was observed in this study indicates that diclofenac might not have neurobehavioral toxicity in Daphnia magna. Significant induction of malondialdehyde content is an indication of overproduction of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage in daphnids after diclofenac exposure. Moreover, significant inhibition of the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities implies that the antioxidant defense system of Daphnia magna was overwhelmed. Also, significant inhibition of glutathione s-transferase activity might point to the fact that the enzyme was not capable to detoxify diclofenac in Daphnia magna. These findings indicate that diclofenac can accumulate and consequently stimulate behavioral and biochemical disturbances in Daphnia magna.
KeywordsDiclofenac Daphnia magna Bioconcentration Feeding behavior Oxidative stress Biomarker
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 51769034, 51609066), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant 2018B43614), the Program for Scientific Research Innovation Team in Colleges and Universities of Tibet Autonomous Region, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
- Barnes KK, Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Meyer MT, Barber LB (2008) A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States — I) groundwater. Sci Total Environ 402:192–200Google Scholar
- EU (2013) Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the council of 12 August 2013 amending directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy European Union off. J Eur Union L226Google Scholar
- Ferrari B, Mons R, Vollat B, Fraysse B, Paxēaus N, Giudice RL, Pollio A, Garric J (2004) Environmental risk assessment of six human pharmaceuticals: are the current environmental risk assessment procedures sufficient for the protection of the aquatic environment? Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1344–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holland (2018) EGU2018: New global models predict increasing pollution of rivers. https://www.dutchwatersector.com/news-events/news/30914-egu2018-new-global-models-predict-increasing-pollution-of-rivers.html. Accessed 21/10/2018
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2004) Guidelines for testing of chemicals no. 202: Daphnia magna acute immobilization test. ParisGoogle Scholar
- Pirow R, Wollinger F, Paul RJ (1999) The sites of respiratory gas exchange in the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna: an in vivo study employing blood haemoglobin as an internal oxygen probe. J Exp Biol 202:3089–3099Google Scholar
- Triebskorn R, Schwarz S, Köhler H, Berg K, Jungmann D, Frey M, Oehlmann J, Oetken M (2014) From theory to reality - evaluation of suitable organisms and test systems for the biomonitoring of pharmaceuticals - part I: literature review. UBA Texte, Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-RosslauGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2007) Method 1694: pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water, soil, sediment, and biosolids by HPLC/MS/MS Washington, DC EPA-821-R-08-002:1-77Google Scholar
- Zaltauskaite J, Miskelyte D (2018) Biochemical and life cycle effects of triclosan chronic toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–9Google Scholar