Effect of diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends combustion on VCR stationary CI engine performance and exhaust emissions

  • Chandan KumarEmail author
  • Kunj Bihari Rana
  • Brajesh Tripathi
Research Article


The continuous rise in cost of fossil fuels and environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emission of internal combustion engines. In the present work, methanol and nitromethane were treated as a biofuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable diesel-methanol-nitromethane blend. For this, experimental investigations were carried out on a VCR diesel engine using diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends to determine the most favorable blending ratio and engine operating parameters for enhancing performance and reduce emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed with D-M5-NM2.5 blend (diesel 92.5%, methanol 5%, nitromethane 2.5%) at standard engine parameters. The improvement in engine performance (13% increment in BTE and 19.5% decrement in BSFC) and reduction in emission (smoke 26.47%, NOx 21.66%, and CO 14.28%) was found using D-M5-NM2.5 blend as compared to pure diesel at full load condition; however, HC emission was slightly increased by 10.71%. To find out the best suitable value of CR for D-M5-NM2.5 blend, experiments were further performed on different compression ratios by which higher compression ratio of 19.5 was found better under similar operating conditions. By increasing CR from 18.5 (standard) to 19.5, improvement in engine performance (BTE increased 3.8% and BSFC decreased 3.4%) and reduction in emission (smoke 10%, CO 16.67%, and HC 61.29%) were observed using D-M5-NM2.5 blend; however, NOx was found to be on slightly higher side with tolerable increment of 6.38%.


Diesel Methanol Nitromethane VCR diesel engine Engine performance Emission 



Brake power


Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake thermal efficiency

CA btdc

Crank angle before top dead centre


Compression ignition


Cetane number


Compressed natural gas


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Compression ratio




Direct injection


Exhaust gas recirculation






Hartridge smoke units


Internal combustion


Indicated mean effective pressure


Injection pressure


Injection timing












Newton meter


Nitrogen oxides


Personal computer


Particulate matter


Parts per million


Revolution per minutes


Spark ignition


Variable compression ratio




Volume by volume



The authors are grateful to Rajasthan Technical University (RTU), Kota and Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, for providing the research facility to conduct this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandan Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kunj Bihari Rana
    • 1
  • Brajesh Tripathi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRajasthan Technical UniversityKotaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSwami Keshvanand Institute of Technology Management & GramothanJaipurIndia

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