Characterizing PBDEs in fish, poultry, and pig feeds manufactured in China

  • Jing-Xin Wang
  • Lian-Jun Bao
  • Lei Shi
  • Liang-Ying Liu
  • Eddy Y. Zeng
Research Article


A total of 53 feeds from 23 brands for four types of animals, i.e., fish, chicken, duck, and pig, as well as six types of raw materials, were bought from Guangxi, Hubei, Anhui, and Guangdong provinces in China and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The raw materials including super fish meal, ordinary fish meal, poultry ore, soybean, stone powder, and rapeseed were selected because they were added to all the animal feeds manufactured. The occurrence of PBDEs was ubiquitous in the feeds and raw materials, with BDE-209 as the most abundant congener. The average concentration of ∑8PBDE was 1.1 and 0.44 ng g−1 dry weight in feeds (range 0.25–5.7) and raw materials (range 0.27–0.84), respectively. No statistically significant differences in ∑8PBDE concentrations were observed among the four groups of animal feeds. Feeds from Yangzhiyuan Brand (n = 11) contained statistically (p < 0.01) lower ∑8PBDE concentrations than all other brands except for Baoshun Brand. Chicken was selected as a representative animal to assess health risk for human exposure to PBDEs via the consumption of chicken raised by the feeds under investigation. Hazard quotients based on per-capita consumption of chicken were all below 1, indicating low potential risk to humans consuming chicken raised with the feeds.

Graphical abstract


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Animal feed Raw material Dietary intake Risk assessment 



We thank all the participants from various provinces for help with sampling and sample shipment.


The present study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41390240 and 41329002).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4057_MOESM1_ESM.doc (84 kb)
ESM 1 The Supplementary Material is available free of charge on the Springer Publications website at DOI: Date of sampling, brand, factory location, and lipid content (%) of feed and raw material samples (Table S1). Detailed concentration of each PBDE congener measured in feed and raw material samples (Table S2 and S3). Reference dose (RfDs) of PBDEs established by the US EPA (Table S4), calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of PBDEs via the consumption of chicken raised with chicken feeds investigated in this study (Table S5), and HQ values of PBDEs via “real” chicken meat (Table S6). (DOC 83 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing-Xin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lian-Jun Bao
    • 1
  • Lei Shi
    • 1
  • Liang-Ying Liu
    • 1
  • Eddy Y. Zeng
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EnvironmentJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Recreational Fisheries Research, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Agriculture Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risky Assessment for Aquatic ProductPearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academic of Fishery ScienceGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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