Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 30, pp 23636–23645 | Cite as

The role of some feed additives in fish fed on diets contaminated with cadmium

  • Mohamed Salah Ayyat
  • Hemat Kamal Mahmoud
  • Abd El-Aziz Mohamed El-Hais
  • Khaled Mahmoud Abd El-Latif
Research Article


The decline of cadmium pollution in fish farms is needed by any adequate method. The present study was designed to explore the effect of dietary cadmium contamination and its amelioration by using dietary clay, probiotic (Bactocell®), vitamin C, and vitamin E supplementation in Nile tilapia fish diet on growth rate, feed efficiency, blood components, and cadmium residues. Fish were separated into 15 groups, each group of fish was stocked into three aquaria and each contains 20 fishes. The fish of the first five groups were fed the basal diet, the second five groups were fed the basal diet contaminated with 25 mg cadmium/kg, and the third five groups were fed the same diet contaminated with 50 mg cadmium/kg. Within each dietary cadmium level, the first group was fed the diet without any supplementation, the second was fed the diet supplemented with natural clay (bentonite) at level 3%, the third group was fed the diet supplemented with 1 g Bactocell®/kg, the fourth group was fed the diet supplemented 50 mg vitamin E/kg, and the fifth group was fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg vitamin C/kg. Live body weight, daily body weight gain, and feed intake of Nile tilapia decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary cadmium level, while feed conversion was impaired. Fish group fed on diets contaminated with 50 mg cadmium/kg recorded the lowest live body weight and weight gain. Serum total protein and albumin concentration significantly (P < 0.001) decreased, while serum creatinine, AST, and ALT significantly (P < 0.001) increased with increasing cadmium level in fish diets. Blood hemoglobin and total erythrocyte (RBCs) significantly (P < 0.001 or 0.05) decreased with cadmium contamination in fish diets, while leukocytes were insignificantly affected. Body cadmium residues increased significantly (P < 0.001) by increasing cadmium level in fish diets. Live body weight, daily body weight gain, and feed intake of Nile tilapia increased significantly (P < 0.001) with feed additive supplementation in diets, also while feed conversion improved. Fish group fed on diets supplemented with probiotic Bactocell® or natural clay recorded higher body weight and gain rate than the other experimental groups. Serum total protein, blood hemoglobin, and total erythrocyte increased, while urea-N, creatinine, ALT, AST, and leukocytes decreased as affected with the feed additive supplementation. Feed additive supplementation in fish diets significantly (P < 0.001) decreased cadmium residues in fish bodies. Irrespective of dietary cadmium level, feed additive supplementation in fish diet improved the growth rate and decreased the concentrations of serum creatinine and ALT. The obtained results indicated that feed additive supplementation could modify the function of the kidney and liver in fish exposed to the cadmium toxicity.


Cadmium Clay Bactocell® Vitamin C Vitamin E Nile tilapia Amelioration 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Salah Ayyat
    • 1
  • Hemat Kamal Mahmoud
    • 1
  • Abd El-Aziz Mohamed El-Hais
    • 2
  • Khaled Mahmoud Abd El-Latif
    • 3
  1. 1.Animal Production Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Animal Production Department, Faculty of AgricultureTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Specialized HospitalAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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