Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

PCDD/F formation during thermal desorption of chlorobenzene contaminated soil

Abstract

Unintentional formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) is observed and investigated during the thermal desorption in an airflow of a sandy soil, doped artificially with either 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) or hexachlorobenzene (HCBz) using a lab-scale experimental set-up. At all temperatures investigated (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 °C), this thermal treatment creates significant amounts of PCDD, PCDF and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), starting from 1,2-DiCBz. The highest yield of PCDD/F formed from 1,2-DiCBz occurs at 250 °C, with a total (gas + residual soil) output of 117 and 166 pg/g PCDD and PCDF, respectively. Most output reports to the gas phase and the PCDD/F signature is significantly different for residue and gas phase. Also PCB are formed, at a scale of 224 ng/g (300 °C). Compared with 1,2-DiCBz, HCBz converts into PCDD/F even more actively at 350 and 400 °C: the total PCDD/F output created attains 967 pg/g PCDD and 465 pg/g PCDF at 350 °C. As a precursor, 1,2-DiCBz favours formation of PCDF, while PCDD predominates, when the HCBz contaminated soil is treated.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Addink R, Olie K (1995) Mechanisms of formation and destruction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in heterogeneous systems. Environ Sci Technol 29:1425–1435

  2. Addink R, Drijver DJ, Olie K (1991) Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the carbon/fly ash system. Chemosphere 23:1205–1211

  3. Babushok VI, Tsang W (2003) Gas-phase mechanism for dioxin formation. Chemosphere 51:1023–1029

  4. van Berkel OM, Olie K, van den Berg M (1988) Thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans on fly ash from a municipal incinerator. Int J Environ Anal Chem 34:51–67

  5. Buser HR (1979) Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the pyrolysis of individual PCB isomers. Chemosphere 8:157–174

  6. Chen T, Gu Y, Yan J, Li X, Lu S, Cen K (2006) Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on chlorobenzene and fly ash. J Combust Sci Technol 12:253–256

  7. Cunliffe AM, Williams PT (2007) Influence of temperature on PCDD/PCDF desorption from waste incineration fly ash under nitrogen. Chemosphere 66:1146–1152

  8. Du Y, Zhang H, Chen J, Fan Y, Ni Y (2010) PCDD/Fs formation from pentachlorobenzene under the catalysis of CuO. Environ Sci 31:2774–2779

  9. Falciglia PP, Giustra MG, Vagliasindi FGA (2011) Low-temperature thermal desorption of diesel polluted soil: influence of temperature and soil texture on contaminant removal kinetics. J Hazard Mater 185:392–400

  10. Froese K, Hutzinger O (1996) Polychlorinated benzene, phenol, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in heterogeneous combustion reactions of acetylene. Environ Sci Technol 30:998–1008

  11. Fueno H, Tanaka K, Sugawa S (2002) Theoretical study of the dechlorination reaction pathways of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chemosphere 48:771–778

  12. Gao XB, Wang W, Liu X (2009) Dechlorination reaction of hexachlorobenzene with calcium oxide at 300–400 °C. J Hazard Mater 169:279–284

  13. Ghorishi SB, Altwicker ER (1996) Rapid formation of polychlorinated dioxins/furans during the heterogeneous combustion of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Chemosphere 32:133–144

  14. Jarmohamed W, Mulder P (1994) Oxychlorination and combustion of propene on fly-ash. Formation of chlorinated benzenes, dibenzodioxines and mono- and dibenzofurans. Chemosphere 29:1911–1917

  15. Liu W, Zheng M, Wang D, Xing Y, Zhao X, Ma X, Qian Y (2004) Formation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the process of production of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Chemosphere 57:1317–1323

  16. Liu J, Qi Z, Li X, Chen T, Buekens A, Yan J, Ni M (2015) Effect of oxygen content on the thermal desorption of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:12289–12297

  17. Olie K, Vermeulen PL, Hutzinger O (1977) Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of fly ash and flue gas of some municipal incinerators in the Netherlands. Chemosphere 6:455–459

  18. Qi Z, Chen T, Bai S, Yan M, Lu S, Buekens A, Yan J, Bulmau C, Li X (2014) Effect of temperature and particle size on the thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:4697–4704

  19. Risoul V, Pichon C, Trouve G, Peters WA, Gilot P, Prado G (1999) Thermogravimetric study of thermal decontamination of soils polluted by hexachlorobenzene, 4-chlorobiphenyl, naphthalene, or n-decane. J Hazard Mater 64:295–311

  20. Ryu J, Mulholland JA, Kim DH, Takeuchi M (2005) Homologue and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from phenol precursors: comparison with municipal waste incinerator data. Environ Sci Technol 39:4398–4406

  21. Sato T, Todoroki T, Shimoda K, Terada A, Hosomi M (2010) Behavior of PCDD/PCDF in remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments by thermal desorption. Chemosphere 80:184–189

  22. Sommeling PM, Mulder P, Louw R (1994) Formation of PCDFs during chlorination and oxidation of chlorobenzene in chlorine/oxygen mixtures around 340 °C. Chemosphere 29:2015–2018

  23. Troxler W, Goh S, Dicks L (1993) Treatment of pesticide-contaminated soils with thermal desorption technologies. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 43:1610–1619

  24. Tuppurainen K, Halonen I, Ruuskanen J (1996) Dioxaspiro-type structures as intermediates in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. A semi-empirical AM1 molecular orbital study. Chemosphere 32:1349–1356

  25. Tuppurainen K, Halonen I, Ruokojarvi P, Tarhanen J, Ruuskanen J (1998) Formation of PCDDs and PCDFs in municipal waste incineration and its inhibition mechanisms: a review. Chemosphere 36:1493–1511

  26. USEPA (1994) Method 1613: tetra- through octa-chlorinated dioxins and furans by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS. USEPA. USEPA Press, Washington, DC

  27. USEPA (2008) Method 1668B: chlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, soil, sediment, biosolids, and tissue by HRGC/HRMS. USEPA, Washington, DC

  28. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson R (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93:223–241

  29. Weber R, Hagenmaier H (1999) Mechanism of the formation of polychlorinated debenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from chlorophenls in gas phase reactions. Chemosphere 38:529–549

  30. Weber R, Sakurai T (2001) Low temperature decomposition of PCB by TiO2-based V2O5/WO3 catalyst evaluation of the relevance of PCDF formation and insights into the first step of oxidative destruction of chlorinated aromatics. Appl Catal B 34:113–127

  31. Yin K, Gao X, Sun Y, Zheng L, Wang W (2013) Thermal degradation of hexachlorobenzene in the presence of calcium oxide at 340–400 °C. Chemosphere 93:1600–1606

  32. Zhang M, Buekens A (2016) De novo synthesis of dioxins: a review. Int J Enviro Pollut 60:63–110

  33. Zhao Z, Ni M, Li X, Buekens A (2016a) Thermal desorption for remediating PCB-contaminated soil. Int J Enviro Pollut 60:171–189

  34. Zhao Z, Ni M, Li X, Buekens A, Yan J (2016b) Suppression of PCDD/Fs during thermal desorption of PCBs-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:25335–25342

  35. Zhao Z, Ni M, Li X, Buekens A, Yan J (2017) PCDD/F formation during thermal desorption of p,p′-DDT contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:13659–13665

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Xiaodong Li.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Hongwen Sun

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 24 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, Z., Ni, M., Li, X. et al. PCDD/F formation during thermal desorption of chlorobenzene contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 23321–23330 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9963-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • PCDD/F
  • Thermal desorption
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Temperature
  • Soil remediation