Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends

  • 300 Accesses

  • 6 Citations

Abstract

Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NOx, and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Abbreviations

ATDC:

After top dead center

Bu:

Butanol

CRDI:

Common rail direct injection

D t :

Diffusion coefficient

\( {\tilde{\dot{E}}}_{Fu}^{F\to M} \) :

Unmixed fuel source term

\( {\tilde{\dot{E}}}_{O_2}^{A\to M} \) :

Unmixed oxygen source term

ECFM3Z:

Extended coherent flame model three zone

EVC:

Exhaust valve closing

EVO:

Exhaust valve opening

IMAP:

Intake manifold air pressure

IMAT:

Intake manifold air temperature

IT:

Injection timing

IVO:

Inlet valve opening

IVC:

Inlet valve closing

M Fu :

Molar mass of fuel

R :

Universal gas constant

S c and S ct :

Laminar and turbulent Schmidt numbers

\( {\overline{S}}_{\mathrm{NO}} \) :

Mean nitric oxide source term

\( \tilde{u} \) :

Density-weighted average velocity

\( {\overline{\dot{\omega}}}_x \) :

Average combustion source term

ζ :

Transformed coordinate system

\( {\left.{\overline{\rho}}^u\right|}_u \) :

Density of the unburned gases

ε :

Dissipation rate

ϕ :

Equivalence ratio

ϕ s :

Soot mass fraction

μ :

Dynamic viscosity

τ d :

Ignition delay

\( \overline{\rho} \) :

Reynolds averaged fuel density

\( {\tilde{Y}}_{\mathrm{NO}} \) :

Mean mass fraction of NOx

x i :

Cartesian coordinates

M NO :

Molar mass

\( \frac{dc_{\mathrm{NO}\ \mathrm{prompt}}}{dt} \) :

Prompt mechanisms

\( \frac{dc_{\mathrm{NO}\ \mathrm{thermal}}}{dt} \) :

Thermal mechanisms

μ t :

Turbulent viscosity

\( {\tilde{Y}}_x \) :

Averaged mass fraction of species x

M M :

Mean molar mass of the gases in the mixed area

M Fu :

Molar mass of fuel

M air + EGR :

Mean molar mass of the unmixed air + EGR gases

\( \overline{\rho} \) :

Mean density

\( {\tilde{Y}}_{O_2}^{\infty } \) :

Oxygen mass fraction

τ m :

Mixing time

\( {\tilde{Y}}_{T{\mathrm{O}}_2} \) :

Oxygen tracer

\( {\tilde{Y}}_{TFu} \) :

Fuel tracer

References

  1. Atmanli A, Ileri E, Yuksel B, Yilmaz N (2015) Extensive analyses of diesel–vegetable oil–n-butanol ternary blends in a diesel engine. Appl Energy 145:155–162

  2. Campos-Fernández J, Arnal JM, Gómez J, Dorado MP (2012) A comparison of performance of higher alcohols/diesel fuel blends in a diesel engine. Appl Energy 95:267–275

  3. Chen Z, Liu J, Han Z, Du B, Liu Y, Lee C (2013) Study on performance and emissions of a passenger-car diesel engine fueled with butanol–diesel blends. Energy 55:638–646

  4. Chen Z, Wu Z, Liu J, Lee C (2014) Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact. Energy Convers Manag 78:787–795

  5. Choi B, Jiang X, Kim YK, Jung G, Lee C, Choi I, Song CS (2015) Effect of diesel fuel blend with n-butanol on the emission of a turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine. Appl Energy 146:20–28

  6. Chotwichien A, Luengnaruemitchai A, Jai-In S (2009) Utilization of palm oil alkyl esters as an additive in ethanol–diesel and butanol–diesel blends. Fuel 88(9):1618–1624

  7. Colin O, Benkenida A (2004) The 3-zones extended coherent flame model (ECFM3Z) for computing premixed/diffusion combustion. Oil Gas Sci Technol 59(6):593–609

  8. Dernotte J, Mounaim-Rousselle C, Halter F, Seers P (2010) Evaluation of butanol–gasoline blends in a port fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine. Oil Gas Sci Technol Rev Inst Fr Pétrol 65(2):345–351

  9. Doğan O (2011) The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel 90(7):2467–2472

  10. FIRE v2011 Manuals 2011 Graz. AVL LIST GmbH, Austria

  11. Hansen AC, Taylor AB, Lyne PWL, Meiring P (1989) Heat release in the compression-ignition combustion of ethanol. Trans ASAE 32(5):1507–1511

  12. Heywood John (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill Education, New York

  13. Hulwan DB, Joshi SV (2011) Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel–ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content. Appl Energy 88(12):5042–5055

  14. Ibrahim A (2016) Performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by butanol–biodiesel–diesel blends. Appl Therm Eng 103:651–659

  15. Jin C, Yao M, Liu H, Chia-fon FL, Ji J (2011) Progress in the production and application of n-butanol as a biofuel. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(8):4080–4106

  16. Kumar BR, Saravanan S (2016) Effects of iso-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends on performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine under premixed LTC (low temperature combustion) mode. Fuel 170:49–59

  17. Kuo KK (1986) Principles of combustion. Wiley, India

  18. Lamani VT, Yadav AK, Kumar GN (2017a) Effect of exhaust gas recirculation rate on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of common rail diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol-diesel blends. Biofuels. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2017.1369631

  19. Lamani VT, Yadav AK, Narayanappa KG (2017b) Influence of low-temperature combustion and dimethyl ether-diesel blends on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of common rail diesel engine: a CFD study. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:15500–15509

  20. Miers SA, Carlson RW, McConnell SS, Ng HK, Wallner T, Esper J L (2008) Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle (no. 2008-01-2381) SAE technical paper

  21. Petranovic Z, Vujanovic M, Duic N (2015) Towards a more sustainable transport sector by numerically simulating fuel spray and pollutant formation in diesel engines. J Clean Prod 88:272–279

  22. Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG, Dimaratos AM, Kyritsis DC (2010a) Effects of butanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 51(10):1989–1997

  23. Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Hountalas DT, Kakaras EC, Giakoumis EG, Papagiannakis RG (2010b) Investigation of the performance and emissions of bus engine operating on butanol/diesel fuel blends. Fuel 89(10):2781–2790

  24. Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Papagiannakis RG, Kyritsis DC (2011) Combustion heat release analysis of ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends in heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Fuel 90(5):1855–1867

  25. Sarathy SM, Thomson MJ, Togbe C, Dagaut P, Halter F, Mounaim-Rousselle C (2009) An experimental and kinetic modeling study of n-butanol combustion. Combust Flame 156(4):852–864

  26. Sayin C (2010) Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and ethanol–diesel blends. Fuel 89(11):3410–3415

  27. Sayin C, Uslu K, Canakci M (2008) Influence of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel CI engine. Renew Energy 33(6):1314–1323

  28. Schobert HH (2013) The chemistry of hydrocarbon fuels. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford

  29. da Silva Trindade WR, dos Santos RG (2017) Review on the characteristics of butanol, its production and use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:642–651

  30. Siwale L, Kristóf L, Adam T, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M, Penninger A, Kolesnikov A (2013) Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel 107:409–418

  31. Zhang ZH, Balasubramanian R (2014) Influence of butanol–diesel blends on particulate emissions of a non-road diesel engine. Fuel 118:130–136

  32. Zhang Q, Yao M, Zheng Z, Liu H, Xu J (2012) Experimental study of n-butanol addition on performance and emissions with diesel low temperature combustion. Energy 47(1):515–521

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors like to acknowledge AVL-AST, Graz, Austria, for the granted use of AVL-FIRE under the University Partnership Program.

Author information

Correspondence to Ajay Kumar Yadav.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lamani, V.T., Yadav, A.K. & Gottekere, K.N. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 23351–23362 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9956-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • CRDI
  • Combustion analysis
  • Biofuel
  • Emission
  • Butanol
  • CFD