Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 29, pp 22948–22953 | Cite as

Protective role of humic acids against picloram-induced genomic instability and DNA methylation in Phaseolus vulgaris

  • Mahmut Sinan Taspinar
  • Murat Aydin
  • Burcu Sigmaz
  • Nalan Yildirim
  • Guleray AgarEmail author
Research Article


Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) is a liquid auxinic herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Picloram is representing a possible hazard to ecosystems and human health. Therefore, in this study, DNA methylation changes and DNA damage levels in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to picloram, as well as whether humic acid (HA) has preventive effects on these changes were investigated. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques were used for identification of DNA damage and coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) techniques were used to detect the changed pattern of DNA methylation. According to the obtained results, picloram (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/l) caused DNA damage profile changes (RAPDs) increasing, DNA hypomethylation and genomic template stability (GTS) decreasing. On the other hand, different concentrations of applied HA (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) reduced hazardous effects of picloram. The results of the experiment have explicitly indicated that HAs could be an alternative for reducing genetic damage in plants. In addition to the alleviate effects of humic acid on genetic damage, its epigenetic effect is hypomethylation.


DNA methylation Genomic instability Humic acids Picloram 



This study was supported by grants from the Research Funds appropriated to Ataturk University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmut Sinan Taspinar
    • 1
  • Murat Aydin
    • 2
  • Burcu Sigmaz
    • 3
  • Nalan Yildirim
    • 4
  • Guleray Agar
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Field Crops, Faculty of AgricultureAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceErzincan UniversityErzincanTurkey

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