Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1170–1180 | Cite as

Investigating membrane fouling associated with GAC fluidization on membrane with effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor in domestic wastewater treatment

  • Muhammad Aslam
  • Jeonghwan KimEmail author
Water Industry: Water-Energy-Health Nexus

Abstract

Effect of mechanical scouring driven by granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidization on membrane fouling was investigated using a laboratory-scaled, fluidized membrane reactor filtering the effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) in domestic wastewater treatment. The GAC particles were fluidized by recirculating a bulk solution only through the membrane reactor to control membrane fouling. The membrane fouling was compared with two different feed solutions, effluent taken from a pilot-scaled, AFBR treating domestic wastewater and its filtrate through 0.1-μm membrane pore size. The GAC fluidization driven by bulk recirculation through the membrane reactor was very effective to reduce membrane fouling. Membrane scouring under GAC fluidization decreased reversible fouling resistance effectively. Fouling mitigation was more pronounced with bigger GAC particles than smaller ones as fluidized media. Regardless of the fluidized GAC sizes, however, there was limited effect on controlling irreversible fouling caused by colloidal materials which is smaller than 0.1 μm. In addition, the deposit of GAC particles that ranged from 180 to 500 μm in size on membrane surface was very significant and accelerated fouling rate. Biopolymers rejected by the membranes were thought to play a role as binding these small GAC particles on membrane surface strongly.

Keywords

Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor Membrane fouling Mechanical scouring Granular activated carbon Membrane bioreactor 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (2017R1A2B4007804).

Supplementary material

11356_2017_9815_MOESM1_ESM.docx (655 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOCX 654 kb)
11356_2017_9815_MOESM2_ESM.docx (426 kb)
Fig. S2 (DOCX 425 kb)
11356_2017_9815_MOESM3_ESM.docx (39 kb)
Fig. S3 (DOCX 38 kb)
11356_2017_9815_MOESM4_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Fig. S4 (DOCX 46 kb)

References

  1. Ahmad R, Ahmad Z, Khan AU, Mastoi NR, Aslam M, Kim J (2016) Photocatalytic systems as an advanced environmental remediation: recent developments, limitations and new avenues for applications. J Environ Chem Eng 4:4143–4164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alresheedi MT, Basu OD (2014) Support media impacts on humic acid, cellulose, and kaolin clay in reducing fouling in a submerged hollow fiber membrane system. J Membr Sci 450:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aslam M, McCarty PL, Bae J, Kim J (2014) The effect of fluidized media characteristics on membrane fouling and energy consumption in anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors. Sep Purif Technol 132:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam M, Lee P-H, Kim J (2015) Analysis of membrane fouling with porous membrane filters by microbial suspensions for autotrophic nitrogen transformations. Sep Purif Technol 146:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslam M, Charfi A, Lesage G, Heran M, Kim J (2017a) Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: a review of mechanical cleaning by scouring agents to control membrane fouling. Chem Eng J 307:897–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aslam M, Charfi A, Kim J (2017b) Membrane scouring to control fouling under fluidization of non-adsorbing media for wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8527-2
  7. Aslam M, McCarty PL, Shin C, Bae J, Kim J (2017c) Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 240:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aslan M, Saatçi Y, Hanay Ö, Hasar H (2014) Effect of biogas sparging with different membrane modules on membrane fouling in anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR). Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:3285–3293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaiprapat S, Thongsai A, Charnnok B, Khongnakorn W, Bae J (2016) Influences of liquid, solid, and gas media circulation in anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) as a post treatment alternative of aerobic system in seafood industry. J Membr Sci 509:116–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charfi A, Amar NB, Harmand J (2012) Analysis of fouling mechanisms in anaerobic membrane bioreactors. Water Res 46:2637–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charfi A, Aslam M, Lesage G, Heran M, Kim J (2017) Macroscopic approach to develop fouling model under GAC fluidization in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor. J Ind Eng Chem 49:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen W, Westerhoff P, Leenheer JA, Booksh K (2003) Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 37:5701–5710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen J-R, Zhang M, Li F, Qian L, Lin H-J, Yang L, Wu X, Zhou X, He Y-M, Liao B-Q (2016) Membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor: high filtration resistance of gel layer and its underlying mechanisms. Water Res 102:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Natale F, Nigro R (2016) An experimental procedure to estimate tube erosion rates in bubbling fluidised beds. Powder Technol 287:96–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Díaz O, Vera L, González E, García E, Rodríguez-Sevilla J (2016) Effect of sludge characteristics on membrane fouling during start-up of a tertiary submerged membrane bioreactor. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:8951–8962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fan F, Zhou H (2007) Interrelated effects of aeration and mixed liquor fractions on membrane fouling for submerged membrane bioreactor processes in wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 41:2523–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Geng Z, Hall ER, Bérubé PR (2009) Roles of various mixed liquor constituents in membrane filtration of activated sludge. Desalin Water Treat 1:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghauri M, Bokari A, Aslam M, Tufail M (2011) Biogas reactor design for dry process and generation of electricity on sustainable basis. Int J Chem Environ Eng 2:414–417Google Scholar
  19. Hong H, Zhang M, He Y, Chen J, Lin H (2014) Fouling mechanisms of gel layer in a submerged membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 166:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu J, Ren H, Xu K, Geng J, Ding L, Yan X, Li K (2012) Effect of carriers on sludge characteristics and mitigation of membrane fouling in attached-growth membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 122:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang X, Wei C-H, Yu K-C (2008) Mechanism of membrane fouling control by suspended carriers in a submerged membrane bioreactor. J Membr Sci 309:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huber SA, Balz A, Abert M, Pronk W (2011) Characterisation of aquatic humic and non-humic matter with size-exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection-organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND). Water Res 45:879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jin L, Ong SL, Ng HY (2013) Fouling control mechanism by suspended biofilm carriers addition in submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors. J Membr Sci 427:250–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johir M, Shanmuganathan S, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J (2013) Performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with and without the addition of the different particle sizes of GAC as suspended medium. Bioresour Technol 141:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim J, Kim K, Ye H, Lee E, Shin C, McCarty PL, Bae J (2011) Anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 45:576–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim J, Shin J, Kim H, Lee J-Y, Yoon M-H, Won S, Lee B-C, Song KG (2014) Membrane fouling control using a rotary disk in a submerged anaerobic membrane sponge bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 172:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krause S, Zimmermann B, Meyer-Blumenroth U, Lamparter W, Siembida B, Cornel P (2010) Enhanced membrane bioreactor process without chemical cleaning. Water Sci Technol 61:2575–2580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krzeminski P, van der Graaf JHJM, van Lier JB (2012) Specific energy consumption of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for sewage treatment. Water Sci Technol 65:380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kurita T, Kimura K, Watanabe Y (2014) The influence of granular materials on the operation and membrane fouling characteristics of submerged MBRs. J Membr Sci 469:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kurita T, Kimura K, Watanabe Y (2015) Energy saving in the operation of submerged MBRs by the insertion of baffles and the introduction of granular materials. Sep Purif Technol 141:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Le-Clech P, Chen V, Fane TAG (2006) Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 284:17–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee W-N, Kang I-J, Lee C-H (2006) Factors affecting filtration characteristics in membrane-coupled moving bed biofilm reactor. Water Res 40:1827–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee R, McCarty PL, Bae J, Kim J (2014) Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor polishing of baffled reactor effluent during treatment of dilute wastewater. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 90:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li J, Yang F, Liu Y, Song H, Li D, Cheng F (2012) Microbial community and biomass characteristics associated severe membrane fouling during start-up of a hybrid anoxic–oxic membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 103:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liao B-Q, Kraemer JT, Bagley DM (2006) Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: applications and research directions. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 36:489–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lin H, Gao W, Meng F, Liao B-Q, Leung K-T, Zhao L, Chen J, Hong H (2012) Membrane bioreactors for industrial wastewater treatment: a critical review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42:677–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lin H, Zhang M, Wang F, Meng F, Liao B-Q, Hong H, Chen J, Gao W (2014) A critical review of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in membrane bioreactors: characteristics, roles in membrane fouling and control strategies. J Membr Sci 460:110–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin I, Pidou M, Soares A, Judd S, Jefferson B (2011) Modelling the energy demands of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment. Environ Technol 32:921–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meier J (2010) Mechanical influence of PAC particles on membrane processes. J Membr Sci 360:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meng F, Chae S-R, Drews A, Kraume M, Shin H-S, Yang F (2009) Recent advances in membrane bioreactors (MBRs): membrane fouling and membrane material. Water Res 43:1489–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meng F, Zhang S, Oh Y, Zhou Z, Shin H-S, Chae S-R (2017) Fouling in membrane bioreactors: an updated review. Water Res 114:151–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ng CA, Sun D, Bashir MJ, Wai SH, Wong LY, Nisar H, Wu B, Fane AG (2013) Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon. Bioresour Technol 138:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nguyen T-T, Bui X-T, Nguyen D-D, Nguyen P-D, Ngo H-H, Guo W (2016) Performance and membrane fouling of two types of laboratory-scale submerged membrane bioreactors for hospital wastewater treatment at low flux condition. Sep Purif Technol 165:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ozgun H, Dereli RK, Ersahin ME, Kinaci C, Spanjers H, van Lier JB (2013) A review of anaerobic membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatmet: integration options, limitations and expectations. Sep Purif Technol 118:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pradhan M, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J, Ben Aim R (2012) Combined effect of air and mechanical scouring of membranes for fouling reduction in submerged membrane reactor. Desalination 288:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Remy M, Potier V, Temmink H, Rulkens W (2010) Why low powdered activated carbon addition reduces membrane fouling in MBRs. Water Res 44:861–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rosenberger S, Helmus FP, Krause S, Bareth A, Meyer-Blumenroth U (2011) Principles of an enhanced MBR-process with mechanical cleaning. Water Sci Technol 64:1951–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Seib MD, Berg KJ, Zitomer DH (2016) Low energy anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 514:450–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shen L-G, Lei Q, Chen J-R, Hong H-C, He Y-M, Lin H-J (2015) Membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor: impact of floc size. Chem Eng J 269:328–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shim SN, Kim S-R, Jo SJ, Yeon K-M, Lee C-H (2015) Evaluation of mechanical membrane cleaning with moving beads in MBR using Box–Behnken response surface methodology. Desalin Water Treat 56:2797–2806Google Scholar
  51. Shin C, McCarty PL, Kim J, Bae J (2014) Pilot-scale temperate-climate treatment of domestic wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR). Bioresour Technol 159:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Siembida B, Cornel P, Krause S, Zimmermann B (2010) Effect of mechanical cleaning with granular material on the permeability of submerged membranes in the MBR process. Water Res 44:4037–4046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Skouteris G, Hermosilla D, Pez PLO, Negro C, Blanco AN (2012) Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: a review. Chem Eng J 198:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith AL, Stadler LB, Love NG, Skerlos SJ, Raskin L (2012) Perspectives on anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment of domestic wastewater: a critical review. Bioresour Technol 122:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stuckey DC (2012) Recent developments in anaerobic membrane reactors. Bioresour Technol 122:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Swietlik J, Dabrowska A, Raczyk-Stanisławiak U, Nawrocki J (2004) Reactivity of natural organic matter fractions with chlorine dioxide and ozone. Water Res 38:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Verrecht B, Maere T, Nopens I, Brepols C, Judd S (2010) The cost of a large-scale hollow fibre MBR. Water Res 44:5274–5283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang Z, Wu Z, Yin X, Tian L (2008) Membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) under sub-critical flux operation: membrane foulant and gel layer charcterization. J Membr Sci 325:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang Z, Ma J, Tang CY, Kimura K, Wang Q, Han X (2014) Membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors: a review. J Membr Sci 468:276–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang J, Zamani F, Cahyadi A, Toh JY, Yang S, Wu B, Liu Y, Fane AG, Chew JW (2016) Correlating the hydrodynamics of fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) with membrane-fouling mitigation. J Membr Sci 510:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu B, Wong PCY, Fane AG (2014) The potential roles of granular activated carbon in anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors: effect on membrane fouling and membrane integrity. Desalin Water Treat 53:1450–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wu B, Wang Y, Lim W, Chew JW, Fane AG, Liu Y (2016) Enhanced performance of submerged hollow fibre microfiltration by fluidized granular activated carbon. J Membr Sci 499:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wu B, Zamani F, Lim W, Liao D, Wang Y, Liu Y, Chew JW, Fane AG (2017) Effect of mechanical scouring by granular activated carbon (GAC) on membrane fouling mitigation. Desalination 403:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yang Q, Chen J, Zhang F (2006) Membrane fouling control in a submerged membrane bioreactor with porous, flexible suspended carriers. Desalination 189:292–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ye Y, LaBarge N, Kashima H, Kim K-Y, Hong P-Y, Saikaly PE, Logan BE (2016) An aerated and fluidized bed membrane bioreactor for effective wastewater treatment with low membrane fouling. Environ Sci: Water Res Technol 2:994–1003Google Scholar
  66. Yu D, Chen Y, Wei Y, Wang J, Wang Y, Li K (2017) Fouling analysis of membrane bioreactor treating antibiotic production wastewater at different hydraulic retention times. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:9026–9035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang M, Peng W, Chen J, He Y, Ding L, Wang A, Lin H, Hong H, Zhang Y, Yu H (2013) A new insight into membrane fouling mechanism in a submerged membrane bioreactor: osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration. Water Res 47:2777–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringInha UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations