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Pb-induced changes in roots of two cultivated rice cultivars grown in lead-contaminated soil mediated by smoke

Abstract

Nowadays, public concerns regarding deleterious effect of lead (Pb) is on rise due to its abundance and toxic effect on plants and other living organisms. In plants, it has no noticeable biological importance but can cause various morphological, physiological, and biochemical malfunctions. To evaluate the remediating potential of plant-derived smoke (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), a pot culture experiment was designed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and antioxidant parameters of roots in lead (0 (control), 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm)-contaminated soil. Under dark condition, seeds were primed in smoke solution with two dilutions (1:500 and 1:1000) for 24 h. With an increasing concentration of Pb stress, fresh and dry weight and total nitrogen and protein contents decreased significantly while an increase was observed in smoke-treated seed. With increasing Pb stress level, metabolites (i.e., proline, total soluble sugar, total soluble protein, glycine betaine), and antioxidants (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, malonyldialdehyde, and H2O2), contents of roots were increased in non-treated (without smoke treatment) samples, whereas comparatively, a low level of alteration in aforementioned metabolites and antioxidative parameters was observed in the seeds treated with smoke solution. These results suggest a positive role of smoke in alleviating lead-induced changes in roots of two cultivated cultivars of rice grown in Pb-contaminated soil.

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Correspondence to Muhammad Jamil.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Akhtar, N., Khan, S., Malook, I. et al. Pb-induced changes in roots of two cultivated rice cultivars grown in lead-contaminated soil mediated by smoke. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 21298–21310 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9777-8

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Keywords

  • Lead
  • Smoke priming
  • Rice
  • Heavy metals
  • Remediation