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Toxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides on embryos and larvae of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae)


It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides. The acute toxicity test (96 h) was carried out with embryos of stage 17:18 and larvae of stages 24:25. Embryos were more resistant to both pesticides than larvae. In embryo mobility assays, we found that both pesticides caused spasmodic contractions, suggestive of neurological effects. In acute toxicity assays, we found that P. gracilis is more resistant to these insecticides than other studied species.

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Valuable help in laboratorial work was provided by Jessica Herek, Jéssica Slaviero, and Gregori B. Bieniek. We are grateful to the Federal University of Fronteira Sul—UFFS for providing logistical support.

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Correspondence to Marilia T. Hartmann.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Macagnan, N., Rutkoski, C.F., Kolcenti, C. et al. Toxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides on embryos and larvae of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 20699–20704 (2017).

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  • Pesticides
  • Pyrethroids
  • Amphibians
  • Environment contamination
  • Aquatic organism