Low-concentration BPAF- and BPF-induced cell biological effects are mediated by ROS in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by bisphenol A (BPA) have been implicated in cellular oxidative damage and carcinogenesis. It is not known whether the potential alternatives of BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), and bisphenol F (BPF) can also induce ROS involved in mediating biological responses. This study evaluated the toxicity of BPAF and BPF on cell proliferation, DNA damage, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and ROS generation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The results showed that BPAF at 0.001–1 μM and BPF at 0.01–1 μM significantly increased cell viability and at 25 and 50 μM, both compounds decreased cell viability. At 0.01–10 μM, both BPAF and BPF increased DNA damage and significantly elevated ROS and intracellular Ca2+ levels in MCF-7 cells. These biological effects were attenuated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), indicating that ROS played a key role in the observed biological effects of BPAF and BPF on MCF-7 cells. These findings can deepen our understanding on the toxicity of BPAF and BPF, and provide basis data to further evaluate the potential health harm and establish environmental standard of BPAF and BPF.
KeywordsROS N-Acetylcysteine Bisphenol AF and bisphenol F Biological effect MCF-7 cells
We gratefully acknowledge the supports of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21507078, 41430644, 41373098), the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (No. OGL-201410), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (No. IRT13078).
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