Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 22, pp 18692–18698 | Cite as

Ecotoxicity of 1,3-dichloropropene, metam sodium, and dazomet on the earthworm Eisenia fetida with modified artificial soil test and natural soil test

  • Liangang Mao
  • Lan Zhang
  • Yanning Zhang
  • Hongyun Jiang
Short Research and Discussion Article


1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), metam sodium (MS), and dazomet (DZ) are widely used as preplant soil fumigants to solve soilborne problems. To provide a more scientific and accurate evaluation of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, modified artificial soil test and natural soil test were studied. The suitable soil moisture to maintain over 90% survival of the earthworms after 4 weeks of treatment in an enclosed system for modified artificial soil test and natural soil test were 26.9 to 86.4% of water-holding capacity (WHC) and 66.2 to 84.3% of WHC, respectively. The optimal soil moisture levels for modified artificial soil test and natural soil test (75 and 55% of WHC, respectively) were finally used to evaluate the toxicity of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ on earthworms. Each desiccator with 10 earthworms and natural or artificial soil was stored at 20 ± 1 °C under constant light of 400 to 800 lx for 2 weeks. The modified artificial soil test showed LC50 values for 1,3-D, MS, and DZ of 3.60, 1.69, and 5.41 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, respectively. The modified natural soil test of the fumigants showed similar LC50 values of 2.77 and 0.65 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, except for DZ at 0.98 mg a.i. kg−1 soil. The present study confirms that both modified artificial soil test and modified natural soil test offer standard methods for acute toxicity test of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ on the earthworms and scientific evidences for assessing the effects of soil fumigants on non-target organisms in the soils.

Graphical Abstract

Two novel acute toxicity test methods for soil fumigants on the earthworm Eisenia fetida


1,3-Dichloropropene Metam sodium Dazomet Eisenia fetida Modified soil test 



We thank American Journal Experts (AJE) for the English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


This work was supported by the National Key Research Development Program of China (no. 2016YFD0200500 and 2016YFD0200200).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liangang Mao
    • 1
  • Lan Zhang
    • 1
  • Yanning Zhang
    • 1
  • Hongyun Jiang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant ProtectionChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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