Monitoring of organic pollutants in marine environment by semipermeable membrane devices and mussels: accumulation and biochemical responses
- 317 Downloads
This study involves the monitoring of organic pollutants using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as bioindicator organisms and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Mussels and SPMDs were deployed to marinas, shipyards and shipbreaking yards on the coastal area of Turkey and retrieved after 60 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds were analysed with high-resolution GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in SPMDs and mussels ranged from 200 to 4740 ng g sampler−1 and from 7.0 to 1130 ng g−1 in wet weight (ww). PCB and OCP concentrations in SPMDs changed between 0.04–200 and 4.0–26 ng g sampler−1, respectively. The highest PCB (190 ng g−1 ww) and OCP (200 ng g−1 ww) concentrations in mussels were measured at shipyard stations. A strong correlation was observed between the PAH and PCB concentrations in SPMDs and mussels. Enzyme assays (acetylcholinesterase, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathion reductase and carboxylesterase activities) were performed as biomarkers to reveal the effects of pollution on the mussels. There was no clear relationship found between the enzyme levels and the pollutant concentrations in mussels. Integrated biomarker responses were calculated to interpret the overall effect of pollutants.
KeywordsPassive sampling SPMDs Mussel transplantation Organic pollutants, enzymes Integrated biomarker response
This research has been supported via Joint Research Projects between The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), International Bureau of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (project numbers: 110Y194 in Turkey and PT-DLR 01DL12016 in Germany).
- Baussant T, Sanni S, Jonsson G et al (2001) Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds: 1. Bioconcentration in two marine species and in semipermeable membrane devices during chronic exposure to dispersed crude oil. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1175–1184. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620200606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bodin N, Burgeot T, Stanisière JY et al (2004) Seasonal variations of a battery of biomarkers and physiological indices for the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis transplanted into the northwest Mediterranean Sea. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C Toxicol Pharmacol 138:411–427. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2004.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Di Leo A, Annicchiarico C, Cardellicchio N et al (2014) Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and seasonal variations in mussels from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:13196–13207. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2495-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greenwood R, Mills G, Vrana B (2007) Passive sampling techniques in environmental monitoring. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249:7130–7139Google Scholar
- Huckins JN, Petty JD, Booij K (2006) Monitors of organic chemicals in the environment. Springer US, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
- Joyce AS, Pirogovsky MS, Adams RG et al (2015) Using performance reference compound-corrected polyethylene passive samplers and caged bivalves to measure hydrophobic contaminants of concern in urban coastal seawaters. Chemosphere 127:10–17. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.12.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Poma G, Binelli A, Volta P et al (2014) Evaluation of spatial distribution and accumulation of novel brominated flame retardants, HBCD and PBDEs in an Italian subalpine lake using zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:9655–9664. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2826-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prato E, Danieli A, Maffia M, Biandolino F (2010) Lipid and fatty acid compositions of Mytilus galloprovincialis cultured in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Southern Italy): feeding strategies and trophic relationships. Zool Stud 49:211–219Google Scholar
- Richardson BJ, Zheng GJ, Tse ESC et al (2003) A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters. Environ Pollut 122:223–227. doi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00301-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wheelock CE, Phillips BM, Anderson BS et al (2008) Applications of carboxylesterase activity in environmental monitoring and toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). Springer, New York, pp 117–178Google Scholar