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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 23, pp 19114–19125 | Cite as

Monitoring of organic pollutants in marine environment by semipermeable membrane devices and mussels: accumulation and biochemical responses

  • Oya S. Okay
  • Burak Karacık
  • Abbas Güngördü
  • Atilla Yılmaz
  • Nazmi C. Koyunbaba
  • Sevil D. Yakan
  • Bernhard Henkelmann
  • Karl-Werner Schramm
  • Murat Ozmen
Research Article
  • 283 Downloads

Abstract

This study involves the monitoring of organic pollutants using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as bioindicator organisms and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Mussels and SPMDs were deployed to marinas, shipyards and shipbreaking yards on the coastal area of Turkey and retrieved after 60 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds were analysed with high-resolution GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in SPMDs and mussels ranged from 200 to 4740 ng g sampler−1 and from 7.0 to 1130 ng g−1 in wet weight (ww). PCB and OCP concentrations in SPMDs changed between 0.04–200 and 4.0–26 ng g sampler−1, respectively. The highest PCB (190 ng g−1 ww) and OCP (200 ng g−1 ww) concentrations in mussels were measured at shipyard stations. A strong correlation was observed between the PAH and PCB concentrations in SPMDs and mussels. Enzyme assays (acetylcholinesterase, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathion reductase and carboxylesterase activities) were performed as biomarkers to reveal the effects of pollution on the mussels. There was no clear relationship found between the enzyme levels and the pollutant concentrations in mussels. Integrated biomarker responses were calculated to interpret the overall effect of pollutants.

Keywords

Passive sampling SPMDs Mussel transplantation Organic pollutants, enzymes Integrated biomarker response 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research has been supported via Joint Research Projects between The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), International Bureau of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (project numbers: 110Y194 in Turkey and PT-DLR 01DL12016 in Germany).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oya S. Okay
    • 1
  • Burak Karacık
    • 1
  • Abbas Güngördü
    • 2
  • Atilla Yılmaz
    • 1
  • Nazmi C. Koyunbaba
    • 1
  • Sevil D. Yakan
    • 1
  • Bernhard Henkelmann
    • 3
  • Karl-Werner Schramm
    • 3
    • 4
  • Murat Ozmen
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Arts and Sciences Faculty, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Environmental ToxicologyInönü UniversityMalatyaTurkey
  3. 3.Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental HealthInstitute of Ecological ChemistryNeuherbergGermany
  4. 4.Department für BiowissenschaftenTUM, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung und LandnutzungFreisingGermany

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