Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

  • Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology
  • Published:

Bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of an ancient herbal medicine, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), evaluation of their antioxidant, anticancer potential, and antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens

Abstract

In recent years, the use of nanoparticle-based antimicrobials has been increased due to many advantages over conventional agrochemicals. This study investigates the utilization of common medicinal plant dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (TOL-AgNPs). AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against two important phytopathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis and Pseudomonas syringae. The morphology, size, and structure of TOL-AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed the presence of phytochemicals involved during synthesis of NPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis shed light on the size of monodispersed spherical AgNPs ranging between 5 and 30 nm, with an average particle size of about 15 nm. The TOL-AgNPs (at 20 μg/mL concentration) showed significant antibacterial activity with significant growth inhibition of phytopathogens X. axonopodis (22.0 ± 0.84 mm) and P. syringae (19.5 ± 0.66 mm). The synthesized AgNPs had higher antibacterial activity in comparison with commercial AgNPs. Synergistic assays with standard antibiotics revealed that nanoformulations with tetracycline showed better broad-spectrum efficiency to control phytopathogens. They also possessed significant antioxidant potential in terms of ABTS (IC50 = 45.6 μg/mL), DPPH (IC50 = 56.1 μg/mL), and NO (IC50 = 55.2 μg/mL) free radical scavenging activity. The TOL-AgNPs showed high cytotoxic effect against human liver cancer cells (HepG2). Overall, dandelion-mediated AgNPs synthesis can represent a novel approach to develop effective antimicrobial and anticancer drugs with a cheap and eco-friendly nature.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S (2016) A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. J Adv Res 7:17–28

  2. Ajitha B, Reddy YAK, Reddy SP (2014) Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity. Spectrochim Acta Part A 121:164–172

  3. Barapatre A, Aadil KR, Jha H (2016) Synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by lignin-degrading fungus. Bioresour Bioprocess 3:8

  4. Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single disc method. Am J Clin Pathol 45:493–496

  5. Benelli G (2016a) Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review. Parasitol Res 115:23–34

  6. Benelli G (2016b) Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer—a brief review. Enzyme Microbial Technol 95:58–68

  7. Benelli G, Pavela R, Maggi F, Petrelli R, Nicoletti M (2017) Commentary: makinggreen pesticides greener? The potential of plant products for nanosynthesis and pest control. J Clust Sci 28:3–10

  8. Bhakya S, Muthukrishnan S, Sukumaran M, Grijalva M, Cumbal L, Benjamin JHF, Senthil Kumar T, Rao MV (2016) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles—an experimental report. RSC Adv 6:81436

  9. Chang CL, Lin CS, Lai GH (2012) Phytochemical characteristics, free radical scavenging activities, and neuroprotection of five medicinal plant extracts. Evidence-based Complementary Alternative Medicine Article ID 984295:8

  10. Chen HJ, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH (2012) Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique. Int J Mol Sci 13:260–285

  11. Chhipa H (2017) Nanofertilizers and nanopesticides for agriculture. Environ Chem Lett 15:15–22

  12. Chokshi K, Pancha I, Ghosh T, Paliwal C, Maurya R, Ghosh A, Mishra S (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and antioxidant potential of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from de-oiled biomass of thermotolerant oleaginous microalgae Acutodesmus dimorphus. RSC Adv 6:72269

  13. Conley DJ, Paerl HW, Howarth RW, Boesch DF, Seitzinger SP, Havens KE, Lancelot C, Likens GE (2009) Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science 323:1014–1015

  14. Deng H, McShan D, Zhang Y, Sinha SS, Arslan Z, Ray PC (2016) Mechanistic study of the synergistic antibacterial activity of combined silver nanoparticles and common antibiotics. Environ Sci Technol 50:8840–8848

  15. Dermesonluoglu E, Fileri K, Orfanoudaki A, Tsevdou M, Tsironi T, Taoukis P (2016) Modelling the microbial spoilage and quality decay of pre-packed dandelion leaves as a function of temperature. J Food Eng 184:21–30

  16. Fayaz AM, Balaji K, Girilal M, Yadav R, Kalaichelvan PT, Venketesan R (2010) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 6:103–109

  17. Gajbhiye M, Kesharwani J, Ingle A, Gade A, Rai M (2009) Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their activity against pathogenic fungi in combination with fluconazole. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 5:382–386

  18. Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM (2011) Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnol Adv 29:792–803

  19. Gonzalez-Castejon M, Visioli F, Rodriguez-Casado A (2012) Diverse biological activities of dandelion. Nutrition Rev 70:534–547

  20. Gopinath V, Velusamy P (2013) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus sp. GP-23 and evaluation of their antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum. Spectrochim Acta Part A 106:170–174

  21. Gottwald TR, Hughes G, Graham JH, Sun X, Riley T (2001) The citrus canker epidemic in Florida: the scientific basis of regulatory eradication policy for an invasive species. Phytopathology 91:30–34

  22. Graham J, Gottwald T, Cuero J, Achor D (2004) Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri: factors affecting successful eradication of citrus canker. Mol Plant Pathol 5:1–15

  23. Hu C, Kitts DD (2003) Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 51:301–310

  24. Kassas EHY, Attia AA (2014) Bactericidal application and cytotoxic activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles with an extract of the red seaweed Pterocladiella capillacea on the HepG2 cell line. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 15:1299–1306

  25. Khan MR, Rizvi TF (2014) Nanotechnology: scope and application in plant disease management. Plant Pathol J 13:214–231

  26. Kim SW, Jung JH, Lamsal K, Kim YS, Min JS, Lee YS (2012) Antifungal effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against various plant pathogenic fungi. Mycobiology 40:53–58

  27. Krishnaraj C, Ramachandran R, Mohan K, Kalaichelvan PT (2012) Optimization for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effect on phytopathogenic fungi. Spectrochim Acta Part A 93:95–99

  28. Kumar B, Kumari S, Rachid S, Karen B, Marcelo G, Luis C (2016) In vitro evaluation of silver nanoparticles cytotoxicity on Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and their antioxidant activity: green approach for fabrication and application. J Photochem Photobiol B 159:8–13

  29. Kumar R, Sharon M, Choudhary AK (2010) Nanotechnology in agricultural diseases and food safety. J Phytol 2:83–92

  30. Lamsal K, Kim SW, Jung JH, Kim YS, Kim KS, Lee YS (2011) Inhibition effects of silver nanoparticles against powdery mildews on cucumber and pumpkin. Mycobiology 39:26–32

  31. Landi M, Benelli G (2016) Protecting crop species from biotic and abiotic constraints in the era of global change: are we ready for this challenge? Am J Agric Biol Sci 11(2):51-53. doi:10.3844/ajabssp.2016.51.53

  32. Makhija IK, Aswatha-Ram HN, Shreedhara CS, Vijay Kumar S, Devkar R (2011) In vitro antioxidant studies of sitopaladi churna, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation. Free Radic Antioxid 1:37–41

  33. Mishra S, Singh BR, Singh A, Keswani C, Naqvi AH, Singh HB (2014) Biofabricated silver nanoparticles act as a strong fungicide against Bipolaris sorokiniana causing spot blotch disease in wheat. PLoS One 9:e97881

  34. Mishra S, Singh HB (2015) Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as a nanoweapon against phytopathogens: exploring their scope and potential in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:1097–1107

  35. Moldovan B, David L, Achim M, Achim M, Clichici S, Filip GA (2016) A green approach to phytomediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sambucus nigra L. fruits extract and their antioxidant activity. J Mol Liq 221:271–278

  36. Nair R, Varghese SH, Nair BG, Maekawa T, Yoshida Y, Sakthi Kumar D (2010) Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants. Plant Sci 179:154–163

  37. Nazeruddin GM, Prasad NR, Prasad SR, Shaikh YI, Waghmare SR, Adhyapakca P (2014) Coriandrum sativum Seed extract assisted in situ green synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its anti-microbial activity. Ind Crop Prod 60:212–216

  38. Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1712–1720

  39. Panacek A, Smekalova M, Kilianova M, Prucek R, Bogdanova K, Vecerova R (2016) Strong and nonspecific synergistic antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics combined with silver nanoparticles at very low concentrations showing no cytotoxic effect. Molecules 21:26

  40. Park HJ, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Choi SH (2006) A new composition of nanosized silica-silver for control of various plant diseases. Plant Pathol J 22:295–302

  41. Peer D, Karp JM, Hong S, Farokhzad OC, Margalit R, Langer R (2007) Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nat Nanotechnol 2:751–760

  42. Majumdar R, Bag BG, Maity N (2013) Acacia nilotica (Babool) leaf extract mediated size-controlled rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity. Int Nano Lett 3:53

  43. Raman S, Kandula MP, Jacob JA, Soundararajan K, Ramar T, Palani G, Muthukalingan K, Shanmugam A (2012) Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model. Process Biochem 47:273–279

  44. Ramesh PS, Kokila T, Geetha D (2015) Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract. Spectrochim Acta A 142:339–343

  45. Ramkumar VS, Pugazhendhi A, Kumar G, Sivagurunathan P, Saratale GD, Dung TNB, Kannapiran E (2017) Biofabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa and its biomedical properties. Biotechnol Reports 14:1–7

  46. Rao NH, Lakshmidevi N, Pammi SVN, Kollu P, Ganapaty S, Lakshmi P (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities. Mater Sci Eng C 62:553–557

  47. Saratale GD, Saratale RG, Benelli G, Kumar G, Pugazhendhi A, Kim DS, Shin HS (2017a) Anti-diabetic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized with Argyreia nervosa leaf extract high synergistic antibacterial activity with standard antibiotics against foodborne bacteria. J Clust Sci 28:1709–1727

  48. Saratale RG, Shin HS, Kumar G, Benelli G, Ghodake GS, Jiang YY, Kim DS, Saratale GD (2017b) Exploiting fruit byproducts for eco-friendly nanosynthesis: Citrus× clementina peel extract mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with high efficacy against microbial pathogens and rat glial tumor C6 cells. Environ Sci Poll Res doi. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-8724-z

  49. Saratale RG, Shin HS, Kumar G, Benelli G, Kim DS, Saratale GD (2017c) Exploiting antidiabetic activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Punica granatum leaves and anticancer potential against human liver cancer cells (HepG2). Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol doi:10.1080/21691401.2017.1337031

  50. Rostami-Vartooni A, Nasrollahzadeh M, Alizadeh M (2016) Green synthesis of seashell supported silver nanoparticles using Bunium persicum seeds extract: application of the particles for catalytic reduction of organic dyes. J Colloid Interface Sci 470:268–275

  51. Shankar PD, Shobana S, Karuppusamy I, Pugazhendhi A, Ramkumar VS, Arvindnarayan S, Kumar G (2016) A review on the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (gold and silver) using bio-components of microalgae: formation mechanism and applications. Enzym Microb Technol 95:28–44

  52. Sriranjani R, Srinithya B, Vellingiri V, Brindha P, Anthony SP, Sivasubramanian A, Muthuraman MS (2016) Silver nanoparticle synthesis using Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract and preliminary investigation of its antioxidant and anticancer activities. J Mol Liq 220:926–930

  53. Swamy MK, Mohanty SK, Jayanta K, Subbanarasiman B (2015) The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract. Appl Nanosci 5:73–81

  54. Velmurugan P, Lee SM, Iydroose M, Lee KJ, Oh BT (2013) Pine cone-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against agricultural pathogens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:361–368

  55. Velmurugan P, Jaehong S, Kim K, Oh BT (2016) Prunus × yedoensis tree gum mediated synthesis of platinum nanoparticles with antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Mater Lett 174:61–65

  56. Vincente JG, Alves JP, Russell K, Roberts SJ (2004) Identification and discrimination of Pseudomonas syringae isolates from wild cherry in England. Eur J Plant Pathol 110:337–351

  57. Xue Y, Zhang S, Du M, Zhu MJ (2017) Dandelion extract suppresses reactive oxidative species and inflammasome in intestinal epithelial cells. J Functional Foods 29:10–18

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was completely supported by Dongguk University-Seoul, South Korea under research fund 2016–2017. The authors are thankful to Prof. Shrikrishna D. Sartale, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, India, for availing HRTEM facility.

Author information

Correspondence to Ganesh D. Saratale.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Santiago V. Luis

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saratale, R.G., Benelli, G., Kumar, G. et al. Bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of an ancient herbal medicine, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), evaluation of their antioxidant, anticancer potential, and antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 10392–10406 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9581-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Taraxacum officinale
  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Phytopathogens
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Liver cancer cells HepG2
  • Antioxidant activity