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Alterations in liver marker enzymes and recovery ability of cyprinids as indicators of aquatic pollution


Information on the detection of pesticides in fresh water Lakes of Kashmir (Dal and Mansbal) through GC–MS technique is scarce, and also the recovery in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT and ALP) of fish after transferring them to clean media has not been reported yet. The water samples were collected from three sites and analyzed for their pesticide profile by dispersive liquid–liquid micro extraction (DLLME) followed by GC–MS. Influence of pesticides on liver marker enzymes of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius was also investigated. The results obtained showed the presence of three main pesticides viz. chlorpyrifros, dimethoate and dichlorvos in waters of Dal Lake whereas no pesticide was detected in waters of Mansbal. The higher values for AST, ALT and ALP activities and decrease in protein content were obtained in the samples from the Dal Lake compared with those from Mansbal Lake (p < 0.05). These data when compared with the values found in C. carpio and C. carassius from both the Dal Lake and Mansbal Lake kept under laboratory conditions after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of maintenance in clean media found that during depuration, all the enzyme activities came down significantly (p < 0.05) indicating the compensatory response by the fish against the pesticide stress. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of pesticide pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern.

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The authors are grateful to the Director, Centre of Research for Development (CORD), University of Kashmir, India, for providing the necessary research facilities. The first author also thanks Dr. Ajay Kumar, In-charge GC–MS, Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, for cordially providing the GC–MS facility.

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Correspondence to Md. Niamat Ali or Hilal A. Ganaie.

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Responsible editor: Cinta Porte

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Meraj, M., Ali, M.N., Ganai, B.A. et al. Alterations in liver marker enzymes and recovery ability of cyprinids as indicators of aquatic pollution. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 19149–19158 (2017).

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  • GC–MS
  • Pesticides
  • Water
  • Fish
  • Liver marker enzymes
  • Recovery