Determination of carbamazepine and 12 degradation products in various compartments of an outdoor aquatic mesocosm by reliable analytical methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
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The aims of this work are to develop suitable analytical methods to determine the widely used anticonvulsant carbamazepine and 12 of its degradation/transformation products in water, sediment, fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and mollusc (Dreissena polymorpha). Protocols based on solid phase extraction for water, pressurized-liquid extraction for sediments and QuEChERS (quick easy cheap efficient rugged and safe) extraction for both organisms followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are developed, validated and finally applied to samples collected during a 6-month experiment in outdoor mesocosms. Very low detection limits are reached, allowing environmentally realistic doses (namely, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg/L nominal concentrations) to be employed. The results indicate several metabolites and/or transformation products in each compartment investigated, with concentrations sometimes being greater than that of the parent carbamazepine. Biotic degradation of carbamazepine is demonstrated in water, leading to 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine and 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine. In sediment, the degradation results in the formation of acridine, and 2- and 3-hydroxycarbamazepine. Finally, in both organisms, a moderate bioaccumulation is observed together with a metabolization leading to 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine in fish and 2-hydroxycarbamazepine in mollusc. Acridone is also present in fish. This study provides new and interesting data, helping to elucidate how chronic exposure to carbamazepine at relevant concentrations may affect impact freshwater ecosystems.
KeywordsCarbamazepine Mesocosm Bioaccumulation Metabolites Sediment Zebra mussel Stickleback Fresh water
This research was part of the project DOREMIPHARM (Development of robust tools to assess hazard relative to pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems) financially supported by the ANSM (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des produits de santé).
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