Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: A time-series analysis
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Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. We found that four pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2) were significantly associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections. The effect estimates for acute upper respiratory infections tended to be higher (PM2.5 ER = 3.46, 95% CI 2.18, 4.76; PM10 ER = 2.81, 95% CI 1.93, 3.69; NO2 ER = 11.27, 95% CI 8.70, 13.89; SO2 ER = 15.17, 95% CI 11.29, 19.19). Significant associations for gaseous pollutants (NO2 and SO2) were observed after adjustment for particular matter. Stronger associations were observed among older children and in the cold period. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Ningbo.
KeywordsAir pollution Hospital visits Acute upper respiratory infection Acute lower respiratory infection
This study was partly supported by the Air Pollution and Health Research Center, Zhejiang University (Grant: 519600-I21502). The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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