Association between dietary lead intake and 10-year mortality among Chinese adults
- 143 Downloads
Blood lead level is associated with increased risk of mortality, but dietary lead exposure and mortality, particularly with cancer, has not been studied in the general population. The objective of the study was to assess the association between lead intake and 10-year mortality among 2832 Chinese adults. Food intake was measured by 3-day weighed food record in 2002. We documented 184 deaths (63 cancer deaths and 70 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths) during 27,742 person-years of follow-up. Dietary lead intake was positively associated with cancer and all-cause mortality. Across quartiles of lead intake, hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer mortality were 1.00, 0.80 (0.33–1.92), 1.52 (0.65–3.56), and 3.00 (1.06–8.44) (p for trend 0.028). HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.28 (0.83–1.98), 1.24 (0.78–1.97), and 2.24 (1.28–3.94) (p for trend 0.011). Each 30 μg/day increase of lead intake was associated with 25% (95% CI 3–52%) increase of all-cause mortality. There was an interaction between lead intake and hypertension in relation to CVD mortality (p for interaction 0.003): HRs conferred by every 30 μg/day of lead intake were 1.57 (0.98–2.52) and 1.06 (0.81–1.39) among those with or without hypertension. Dietary lead intake was positively related to cancer and all-cause mortality.
KeywordsDietary Lead intake Cancer Mortality Chinese Cohort study
The research was supported by The University of Adelaide and Jiangsu Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures involving human subjects/patients were approved by Jiangsu Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Written consents were obtained from all the participants.
- Ding C et al (2014) Study of distribution and influencing factors of lead and cadmium in whole blood and urine among population in 8 provinces in China. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 48:91–96Google Scholar
- Eum KD, Nie LH, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG (2011) Prospective cohort study of lead exposure and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 119:940–944. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gerhardsson L, Lundstrom NG, Nordberg G, Wall S (1986) Mortality and lead exposure: a retrospective cohort study of Swedish smelter workers. Br J Ind Med 43:707–712Google Scholar
- Jin Y, Liu P, Wu Y, Min J, Wang C, Sun J, Zhang Y (2014b) A systematic review on food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China. Chin Med J 127:2844–2849Google Scholar
- Kasperczyk A, Dobrakowski M, Czuba ZP, Horak S, Kasperczyk S (2015) Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 284:339–344. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Liu Q, Liu L, Wu Y (2012b) Application of the data from China Total Diet Study to assess the distribution of lead exposure in different age-gender population groups. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 41:379–384Google Scholar
- Ma G, Luan D, Liu A, Li Y, Cui Z, Hu X, Yang X (2007) The analysis and evaluation of a physical activity questionnaire of Chinese employed population. Ying Yang Xue Bao 29:217–221Google Scholar
- Orsini N, Greenland S (2011) A procedure to tabulate and plot results after flexible modeling of a quantitative covariate. Stata J 11:1–29Google Scholar
- Rossi E (2008) Low level environmental lead exposure—a continuing challenge. The Clinical biochemist Reviews/Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists 29:63–70Google Scholar
- Schober SE, Mirel LB, Graubard BI, Brody DJ, Flegal KM (2006) Blood lead levels and death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: results from the NHANES III mortality study. Environ Health Perspect 114:1538–1541Google Scholar
- Shi Z, Zhen S, Zimmet PZ, Zhou Y, Zhou Y, Magliano DJ, Taylor AW (2016) Association of impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and dietary patterns with mortality: a 10-year follow-up cohort in Eastern China. Acta Diabetol 53:799–806. doi: 10.1007/s00592-016-0875-8
- StataCorp. (2015) Stata 14 base reference manual. Stata Press, College StateGoogle Scholar
- Weisskopf MG, Jain N, Nie H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J, Hu H (2009) A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Circulation 120:1056–1064. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1968) Nutritional anaemias. Report of a WHO scientific group. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 405:5–37Google Scholar
- Yang Y (2005) Chinese Food Composition Table 2004. Peking University Medical Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar