Sonophotocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A and its intermediates with graphitic carbon nitride
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Since bisphenol A (BPA) exhibits endocrine disrupting action and high toxicity in aqueous system, there are high demands to remove it completely. In this study, the BPA removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with nano-structured graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4, GCN) was conducted with various batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) based on ultrasound (US) and visible light (Vis-L). Results of batch tests indicated that GCN-based sonophotocatalysis (Vis-L/US) had higher rate constants than other AOPs and especially two times higher degradation rate than TiO2-based Vis-L/US. This result infers that GCN is effective in the catalytic activity in Vis-L/US since its surface can be activated by Vis-L to transport electrons from valence band (VB) for utilizing holes (h+VB) in the removal of BPA. In addition, US irradiation exfoliated the GCN effectively. The formation of BPA intermediates was investigated in detail by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The possible degradation pathway of BPA was proposed.
KeywordsSonophotocatalysis Bisphenol A Graphitic carbon nitride Ultrasound Visible light Intermediates
This research was supported by a University of Malaya Research Grant (RP019B-13AET) and partly supported by the Geo-Advanced Innovative Action Project (2012000550002), funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE).
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