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Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years

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Abstract

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999–2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20–64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20–64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) < non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20–64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers. For 20–64-year-old current smokers, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with higher levels of BCd. Levels of both UCd and BCd increased with age, but the rate of increase was as much as seven times higher among ≥65 years old than 20–64 years old. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of BCd. For current smokers aged 20–64 years, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of UCd (p < 0.01), and the number of cigarettes smoked every day on the days they were smoked was also positively associated with the levels of UCd (p < 0.01). Among former smokers, levels of both UCd and BCd were positively associated (p < 0.1) with the number of cigarettes smoked per day at the time of quitting smoking and negatively associated with the time since smoking was quitted (p < 0.01).

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Correspondence to Ram B. Jain.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Jain, R.B. Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 8837–8851 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8607-3

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Keywords

  • Blood cadmium
  • Urine cadmium
  • Former smokers
  • Current smokers