Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1072–1081 | Cite as

Electrochemical anodization of graphite oxide-TiO2 nanotube composite for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

  • Imran Ali
  • Kyungmin Park
  • Seu-Run Kim
  • Jong-Oh KimEmail author
Water Industry: Water-Energy-Health Nexus

Abstract

The electrochemical anodization method was used to dope graphite oxide (GO) onto TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs). This study focused on enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TNTs in the visible light region. In this study, we have checked the effect of different GO concentrations and effect of GO doping time on photocatalytic efficiency of composite. The photocatalytic activity of the GO-TNT composite was tested by degradation of an organic compound. The organic compound was most severely degraded (95%) when the GO-TNT catalyst was doped at an anodization of 60 V for 13 min and GO concentration of 0.25 g L−1. This degradation was 5.6 times higher than that of bare TiO2. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized using FE-SEM, XRD, AES, PL, UV-Vis DRS, and Raman analysis. Recycling of the GO-TNT composite was also performed in order to examine the stability of the visible light catalyst. We observed that the doping of GO on the TNT surface can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency under visible light. Graphene acts as an electron transport; therefore, GO-TNTs were favorable for the separation of e and h+ charges. This promoted the formation of OH radicals, h+, and superoxides, all of which degrade organics.

Keywords

Graphite oxide TiO2 nanotubes Photocatalyst Anodization Visible light Organic degradation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (NRF-2016R1A2A1A05005388).

References

  1. Akhavan O (2010) Graphene nanomesh by ZnO nanorod photocatalysts. ACS Nano 4:4174–4180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhavan O (2015) Bacteriorhodopsin as a superior substitute for hydrazine in chemical reduction of single-layer graphene oxide sheets. Carbon 81:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhavan O, Ghaderi E (2009) Photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets on TiO2 thin film for photoinactivation of bacteria in solar light irradiation. J Phys Chem C 113:20214–20220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhavan O, Ghaderi E (2013a) Differentiation of human neural stem cells into neural networks on graphene nanogrids. J Mater Chem B 1:6291–6301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhavan O, Ghaderi E (2013b) Flash photo stimulation of human neural stem cells on graphene/TiO2 heterojunction for differentiation into neurons. Nanoscale 5:10316–10326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akhavan O, Abdolahad M, Esfandiar A, Mohatashamifar M (2010) Photodegradation of graphene oxide sheets by TiO2 nanoparticles after a photocatalytic reduction. J Phys Chem C 114:12955–12959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akhavan O, Ghaderi E, Shirazian SA (2015) Near infrared laser stimulation of human neural stem cells into neurons on graphene nanomesh semiconductors. Colloid Surf B-Biointerfaces 126:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akhavan O, Saadati M, Jannesari M (2016) Graphene jet nanomotors in remote controllable self-propulsion swimmers in pure water. Nano Lett 16:5619–5630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andriantsiferana C, Mohamed EF, Delmas H (2015) Sequential adsorption-photocatalytic oxidation process for wastewater treatment using a composite material TiO2/activated carbon. Environ Eng Res 20:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birben NC, Tomruk A, Bekbolet M (2016) The role of visible light active TiO2 specimens on the solar photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli Environ Sci Poll Res:1–10Google Scholar
  11. Chequer FMD, de Oliveira DP, Ferraz ERA, de Oliveira GAR, Cardoso JC, Zanoni MVB (2013) Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact. INTECH Open Access Publisher, CroatiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi W-Y, Lee Y-W, Kim J-O (2011) Factors affecting preparation of photocatalytic TiO2 metal membrane with reactive nano-structured tubes. Desalin Water Treat 34:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Vidales JM et al (2016) Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange on a TiO2 nanotubular anode using a flow cell. Chem Eng Technol 39:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dominguez S et al. (2016) Magnetically recoverable TiO2-WO3 photocatalyst to oxidize bisphenol A from model wastewater under simulated solar light Environ Sci Poll Res:1–10Google Scholar
  15. Duo F, Wang Y, Fan C, Mao X, Zhang X, Wang Y, Liu J (2015) Low temperature one-step synthesis of rutile TiO2/BiOCl composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Mater Charact 99:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El-Kacemi S, Zazou H, Oturan N, Dietze M, Hamdani M, Es-Souni M, Oturan MA (2016) Nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin film oxide as anode material in electrooxidation of organic pollutants. Application to the removal of dye Amido black 10B from water Environ Sci Pollution Res:1–8Google Scholar
  17. Galindo C, Jacques P, Kalt A (2001) Photooxidation of the phenylazonaphthol AO20 on TiO2: kinetic and mechanistic investigations. Chemosphere 45:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphene. Nature Mater 6:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gobal F, Faraji M (2015) Electrochemical synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 nanotubes/Ti for high-performance supercapacitors. Ionics 21:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grimes CA, Mor GK (2009) TiO2 nanotube arrays: synthesis, properties, and applications. Springer Science & Business Media, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jo W-K, Kim J-T (2008) Photocatalysis of low concentration of gaseous-phase benzene using visible-light irradiated N-doped and S-doped titanium dioxide. Environ Eng Res 13:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khalid N, Ahmed E, Hong Z, Sana L, Ahmed M (2013) Enhanced photocatalytic activity of graphene–TiO2 composite under visible light irradiation. Curr Appl Phys 13:659–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim S-P, Kim J-O (2015) Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange on a TiO2 nanotubular anode using a flow cell treat:1–7Google Scholar
  24. Kim TJ, Kim WJ, Kim SW (2010) Production method of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst and TiO2 photocatalyst produced by the same. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  25. Lai Y, Sun L, Chen Y, Zhuang H, Lin C, Chin JW (2006) Effects of the structure of TiO2 nanotube array on Ti substrate on its photocatalytic activity. J Electrochem Soc 153:D123–D127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee WH, Lai CW, Hamid SBA (2015) One-step formation of WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotubes composite film for high photocatalytic performance. Materials 8:2139–2153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li S, Ma Z, Zhang J, Wu Y, Gong Y (2008) A comparative study of photocatalytic degradation of phenol of TiO2 and ZnO in the presence of manganese dioxides. Catal Today 139:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li H, Xia Z, Chen J, Lei L, Xing J (2015) Constructing ternary CdS/reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 nanotube arrays hybrids for enhanced visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B-Environ 168:105–113Google Scholar
  29. Lingappan N, Gal Y-S, Lim KT (2013) Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole conductive composites. Mol Cryst Liquid Cryst 585:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu C, Teng Y, Liu R, Luo S, Tang Y, Chen L, Cai Q (2011) Fabrication of graphene films on TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalytic application. Carbon 49:5312–5320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meidanchi A, Akhavan O (2014) Superparamagnetic zinc ferrite spinel–graphene nanostructures for fast wastewater purification. Carbon 69:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mendoza JA, Lee DH, Kang J-H (2016) Photocatalytic removal of NOx using TiO2–coated zeolite. Environ Eng Res 21:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morales-Torres S, Pastrana-Martínez LM, Figueiredo JL, Faria JL, Silva AM (2012) Design of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts—a review. Environ Sci Pollution Res 19:3676–3687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oh W-C (2008) Synthesis and characterization of Fe-containing AC/TiO2 composites and their photodegradation effect for the piggery waste. Environ Eng Res 13:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oh W, Park T (2007) Comparative analysis of the physical properties and photocatalytic effects for C/TiO2 complexes derived from titanium n-butoxide. Environ Eng Res –Seoul 12:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oseghe EO, Ndungu PG, Jonnalagadda SB (2015) Synthesis of mesoporous Mn/TiO2 nanocomposites and investigating the photocatalytic properties in aqueous systems. Environ Sci Pollution Res 22:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pandurangan A, Kamala P, Uma S, Palanichamy M, Murugesan V (2001) Degradation of basic yellow auramine OA textile dye by semiconductor photocatalysis. Indian J Chem Technol 8:496–499Google Scholar
  38. Pfuch A et al. (2013) Photochemical activity of TiO2 nanotubes. In: SPIE OPTO. Int Soc Opt Photonics, 86260–86266Google Scholar
  39. Posa VR, Annavaram V, Koduru JR, Bobbala P, Somala AR (2016) Preparation of graphene–TiO2 nanocomposite and photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine-B under solar light irradiation. J Exp Nanosci 11:722–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raghavan N, Thangavel S, Venugopal G (2015) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by reduced graphene-oxide/titanium dioxide/zinc oxide ternary nanocomposites. Mater Sci Semicond Process 30:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ribao P, Rivero MJ, Ortiz I (2016) TiO2 structures doped with noble metals and/or graphene oxide to improve the photocatalytic degradation of dichloroacetic acid Environ Sci Poll Res:1–10Google Scholar
  42. Rivas J, Encinas Á, Beltrán F, Graham N (2011) Application of advanced oxidation processes to doxycycline and norfloxacin removal from water. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 46:944–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shih Y-H, Lin C-H (2012) Effect of particle size of titanium dioxide nanoparticle aggregates on the degradation of one azo dye. Environ Sci Poll Res 19:1652–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shukla R, Madras G (2014) Cyclic reaction network modeling for the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation. J Environ Chem Eng 2:780–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Slokar YM, Le Marechal AM (1998) Methods of decoloration of textile wastewaters. Dyes Pigment 37:335–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Song P, Zhang X, Sun M, Cui X, Lin Y (2012) Graphene oxide modified TiO2 nanotube arrays: enhanced visible light photoelectrochemical properties. Nanoscale 4:1800–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sun J et al (2015) Controllable fabrication of transparent macroporous graphene thin films and versatile applications as a conducting platform. Adv Funct Mater 25:4334–4343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thien GS et al. (2014) Improved synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-titanium dioxide composite with highly exposed 001 facets and its photoelectrochemical response Int J Photoenergy 2014Google Scholar
  49. Veisi F, Zazouli MA, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Charati JY, Dezfoli AS (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of furfural in aqueous solution by N-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Environ Sci Poll Res 23:21846–21860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang C, Meng D, Sun J, Memon J, Huang Y, Geng J (2014) Graphene wrapped TiO2 based catalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activity Adv Mater Interfaces 1Google Scholar
  51. Wongaree M, Chiarakorn S, Chuangchote S, Sagawa T (2016) Photocatalytic performance of electrospun CNT/TiO2 nanofibers in a simulated air purifier under visible light irradiation. Environ Sci Poll Res 23:21395–21406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu T, Cai X, Tan S, Li H, Liu J, Yang W (2011) Adsorption characteristics of acrylonitrile, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid and methyl blue on graphene in aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 173:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xiang Q, Yu J, Jaroniec M (2012) Graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysts. Chem Soc Rev 41:782–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yang M-Q, Zhang N, Xu Y-J (2013) Synthesis of fullerene–, carbon nanotube–, and graphene–TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts for selective oxidation: a comparative study. ACS App Mater Interfaces 5:1156–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhou K, Zhu Y, Yang X, Jiang X, Li C (2011) Preparation of graphene–TiO2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. New J Chem 35:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Imran Ali
    • 1
  • Kyungmin Park
    • 1
  • Seu-Run Kim
    • 1
  • Jong-Oh Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations