Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 7534–7543 | Cite as

Chemical characterization of diesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) soot after reactive gas probing using diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS)

  • A. Tapia
  • M. S. Salgado
  • M. P. Martín
  • J. Rodríguez-Fernández
  • M. J. Rossi
  • B. Cabañas
Research Article


A chemical characterization of diesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) soot has been developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) before and after the reaction with different probe gases. Samples were generated under combustion conditions corresponding to an urban operation mode of a diesel engine and were reacted with probe gas-phase molecules in a Knudsen flow reactor. Specifically, NH2OH, O3 and NO2 were used as reactants (probes) and selected according to their reactivities towards specific functional groups on the sample surface. Samples of previously ground soot were diluted with KBr and were introduced in a DRIFTS accessory. A comparison between unreacted and reacted soot samples was made in order to establish chemical changes on the soot surface upon reaction. It was concluded that the interface of diesel and HVO soot before reaction mainly consists polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitro and carbonyl compounds, as well as ether functionalities. The main difference between both soot samples was observed in the band of the C=O groups that in diesel soot was observed at 1719 cm−1 but not in HVO soot. After reaction with probe gases, it was found that nitro compounds remain on the soot surface, that the degree of unsaturation decreases for reacted samples, and that new spectral bands such as hydroxyl groups are observed.


Infrared spectroscopy Surface composition Particulate matter Diesel fuel Alternative fuel 



This work was supported by project CGL2014-57087-R, granted by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spain). Neste and Repsol are acknowledged for the supply of HVO and diesel fuels, respectively.

Supplementary material

11356_2017_8436_MOESM1_ESM.docx (632 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 632 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Tapia
    • 1
  • M. S. Salgado
    • 1
  • M. P. Martín
    • 1
  • J. Rodríguez-Fernández
    • 2
  • M. J. Rossi
    • 3
  • B. Cabañas
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías QuímicasUniversidad de Castilla La ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  2. 2.Grupo de Combustibles y Motores, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros IndustrialesUniversidad de Castilla La ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  3. 3.Labor für Atmosphärenchemie (LAC)Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), OBBA006Villigen PSISwitzerland

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