Impacts of biofouling on the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by a nanofiltration membrane
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The impacts of biofouling on the retention of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) by a commercially available nanofiltration membrane (NF 270) were systematically studied. Biofouling was achieved through inoculating live and dead Pseudomonas aeruginosa into artificial wastewater. In comparison to a clean membrane, an increase in PhAC rejection during biofouling with live cells was observed. However, the rejection behaviors presented more complex changes during biofouling with dead cells: PhAC rejection was below the clean membrane in the early biofouling stage; however, in the later stage, PhAC rejection was above the clean membrane. In addition, PhAC rejection behaviors present the similar tendency as salt rejection under both biofouling conditions. In addition, solute rejections were much lower for biofouling with dead cells than those for biofouling with live cells. Combined with biofilm characterization under both biofouling conditions, we could conclude that biofilm enhanced osmotic pressure (BEOP) due to higher cell counts and biofilm thickness led to a decrease in PhAC retention, especially for the dead cells. In addition, more dominant steric exclusion in the later stage of biofouling due to higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration on the membrane surface resulted in an increase in PhAC retention.
KeywordsNanofiltration membrane Pharmaceutically active compounds Biofouling Live cells Dead cells
This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51708032 and 51238006).
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