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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 17, pp 16309–16315 | Cite as

Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers

  • Risa Kakimoto
  • Masayoshi Ichiba
  • Akiko Matsumoto
  • Kunihiko Nakai
  • Nozomi Tatsuta
  • Miyuki Iwai-Shimada
  • Momoko Ishiyama
  • Noriko Ryuda
  • Takashi Someya
  • Ieyasu Tokumoto
  • Daisuke UenoEmail author
PCBs Risk Evaluation and Environmental Protection

Abstract

Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

Keywords

Breast milk POPs Time course variation Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) Appropriate sample size 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors specially thank Ejima, E., Hayashiguch, A., Matsuda, T., Shimoo, J., Iwasako, K., and Ueno, H. for sample collection, and Moribe, M., Ushijima, A., Ito, W., and Soejima, S. for their technical support.

Funding information

This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 18780245) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Supplementary material

11356_2017_1031_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (273 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 273 kb)
11356_2017_1031_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (1.4 mb)
ESM 2 (PPTX 1.35 mb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Risa Kakimoto
    • 1
  • Masayoshi Ichiba
    • 2
  • Akiko Matsumoto
    • 2
  • Kunihiko Nakai
    • 3
  • Nozomi Tatsuta
    • 3
  • Miyuki Iwai-Shimada
    • 4
  • Momoko Ishiyama
    • 1
  • Noriko Ryuda
    • 1
  • Takashi Someya
    • 1
  • Ieyasu Tokumoto
    • 1
  • Daisuke Ueno
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Graduate School of AgricultureSaga UniversitySagaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Social MedicineSaga University School of MedicineSagaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of MedicineTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  4. 4.Center for Health and Environmental Risk ResearchNational Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan

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