Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30554–30560 | Cite as

Joint toxicity of six common heavy metals to Chlorella pyrenoidosa

  • Ling-Yun Mo
  • Dan-Na Zhao
  • Meng Qin
  • Li-Tang QinEmail author
  • Hong-Hu ZengEmail author
  • Yan-Peng Liang
Water Environment Protection and Contamination Treatment


Six common heavy metals (Ni, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the water environment were selected to present five groups of binary mixture systems (Ni-Fe, Ni-Zn, Ni-Pb, Ni-Cd, and Ni-Cr) through a direct equipartition ray design. Microplate toxicity analysis based on Chlorella pyrenoidosa measured the 96-h joint toxicities of the binary mixtures. Toxicity interaction of the binary mixture was analyzed by comparing the observed toxicity data with the reference model (concentration addition). The results indicated that Ni-Fe, Ni-Pb, and Ni-Cr mixtures showed additive effects at concentration tested. It was indicated that Ni-Zn and Ni-Cd mixtures presented additive effects at low concentrations whereas synergistic effects were seen at high concentrations.


Heavy metal Joint toxicity Chlorella pyrenoidosa Concentration addition 



The authors are especially grateful for the financial support received from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21667013 and 21407032), Science Research and Technology Development Project of Guangxi (Guikehe1599005-2-2), and Special Funding for Guangxi “BaGui Scholar” Construction Projects.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and TechnologyGuilin University of TechnologyGuilinChina
  2. 2.Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst AreaGuilin University of TechnologyGuilinChina
  3. 3.Shenzhen Tech and Ecology and Environment CO., LTD.ShenzhenChina

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