Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 2083–2095 | Cite as

Flocculation performance of lignin-based flocculant during reactive blue dye removal: comparison with commercial flocculants

  • Kangying Guo
  • Baoyu GaoEmail author
  • Ruihua Li
  • Wenyu Wang
  • Qinyan Yue
  • Yan Wang
Review Article

Abstract

A novel lignin-based flocculant (LBF) with superior flocculation performance was prepared from paper mill sludge in this work. The functional groups of LBF and alkaline lignin (AL) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The flocculation performance of LBF integrated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was tested in reactive dye wastewater treatment. Floc properties and color removals in multiple flocculation systems were discussed. Results indicated that the dye removal (93%) was greatly facilitated as the LBF was integrated with PAC (PAC + LBF). In addition, floc properties and color removals were significantly improved in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. In contrary, flocculation performance was greatly restricted in the presence of SO4 2−. LBF was less pH sensitive and shear sensitive than polyacrylamide (PAM) due to the enhanced charge neutralization and bridging action. On the basis of that, LBF could be used as a promising flocculant in dye wastewater treatment.

Keywords

Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) Polyacrylamide (PAM) Lignin-based flocculant (LBF) Floc properties pH Shear force 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The kind suggestions from the anonymous reviewers are greatly acknowledged.

Funding information

This work was supported by grants from Tai Shan Scholar Foundation (No. ts201511003).

Supplementary material

11356_2017_835_MOESM1_ESM.docx (157 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 157 kb)

References

  1. Al-Ani Y, Li Y (2012) Degradation of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 using combined iron scrap process and coagulation/flocculation by a novel Al(OH)3–polyacrylamide hybrid polymer. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 43(6):942–947.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2012.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alshahrani AA, Al-Zoubi H, Nghiem LD, in het Panhuis M (2017) Synthesis and characterisation of MWNT/chitosan and MWNT/chitosan-crosslinked buckypaper membranes for desalination. Desalination 418:60–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2017.05.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bo X, Gao B, Peng N, Wang Y, Yue Q, Zhao Y (2011) Coagulation performance and floc properties of compound bioflocculant-aluminum sulfate dual-coagulant in treating kaolin-humic acid solution. Chem Eng J 173(2):400–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.07.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breunig M, Gebhart P, Hornung U, Kruse A, Dinjus E (2017) Direct liquefaction of lignin and lignin rich biomasses by heterogenic catalytic hydrogenolysis. Biomass Bioenergy.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.06.001
  5. Chen W, Feng Q, Zhang G, Yang Q, Zhang C (2017) The effect of sodium alginate on the flotation separation of scheelite from calcite and fluorite. Miner Eng 113:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2017.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chequer FM, Lizier TM, de Felicio R, Zanoni MV, Debonsi HM, Lopes NP, Marcos R, de Oliveira DP (2011) Analyses of the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of the products formed after the biotransformation of the azo dye Disperse Red 1. Toxicol in Vitro 25(8):2054–2063.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2011.05.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chidambaram T, Oren Y, Noel M (2015) Fouling of nanofiltration membranes by dyes during brine recovery from textile dye bath wastewater. Chem Eng J 262:156–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cinar M, Coruh A, Karabacak M (2014) A comparative study of selected disperse azo dye derivatives based on spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR and UV-Vis) and nonlinear optical behaviors. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 122:682–689.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2013.11.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Couch RL, Price JT, Fatehi P (2016) Production of flocculant from thermomechanical pulping lignin via nitric acid treatment. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4(4):1954–1962.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Du X, Li J, Lindström ME (2014) Modification of industrial softwood kraft lignin using Mannich reaction with and without phenolation pretreatment. Ind Crop Prod 52:729–735.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fang R, Cheng X, Xu X (2010) Synthesis of lignin-base cationic flocculant and its application in removing anionic azo-dyes from simulated wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101(19):7323–7329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.04.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao L, Chen S, Zhang D (2017) Advances in modifying lignin structures for largely enhancing high-lignin biomass saccharification. Process Biochem 57:175–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2017.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He W, Zhang Y, Fatehi P (2016) Sulfomethylated kraft lignin as a flocculant for cationic dye. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 503:19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heng L, Jun N, Wen-jie H, Guibai L (2009) Algae removal by ultrasonic irradiation–coagulation. Desalination 239(1-3):191–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.12.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang X, Gao B, Yue Q, Wang Y, Li Q, Zhao S, Sun S (2013) Effect of dosing sequence and raw water pH on coagulation performance and flocs properties using dual-coagulation of polyaluminum chloride and compound bioflocculant in low temperature surface water treatment. Chem Eng J 229:477–483.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.06.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang X, Bo X, Zhao Y, Gao B, Wang Y, Sun S, Yue Q, Li Q (2014) Effects of compound bioflocculant on coagulation performance and floc properties for dye removal. Bioresour Technol 165:116–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang X, Gao B, Yue Q, Zhang Y, Sun S (2015) Compound bioflocculant used as a coagulation aid in synthetic dye wastewater treatment: the effect of solution pH. Sep Purif Technol 154:108–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang M, Liu Z, Li A, Yang H (2017) Dual functionality of a graft starch flocculant: flocculation and antibacterial performance. J Environ Manag 196:63–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiao R, Fabris R, Chow CWK, Drikas M, van Leeuwen J, Wang D, Xu Z (2017) Influence of coagulation mechanisms and floc formation on filterability. J Environ Sci 57:338–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2017.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kong F, Parhiala K, Wang S, Fatehi P (2015) Preparation of cationic softwood kraft lignin and its application in dye removal. Eur Polym J 67:335–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuppusamy S, Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Lee YB, Naidu R (2016) Potential of Melaleuca diosmifolia as a novel, non-conventional and low-cost coagulating adsorbent for removing both cationic and anionic dyes. J Ind Eng Chem 37:198–207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lal K, Garg A (2017) Physico-chemical treatment of pulping effluent: characterization of flocs and sludge generated after treatment. Sep Sci Technol 52:1583–1593Google Scholar
  23. Lee KE, Teng TT, Morad N, Poh BT, Mahalingam M (2011) Flocculation activity of novel ferric chloride–polyacrylamide (FeCl3-PAM) hybrid polymer. Desalination 266(1-3):108–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li T, Wang D, Zhang B, Liu H, Tang H (2006a) Characterization of the phosphate adsorption and morphology of sediment particles under simulative disturbing conditions. J Hazard Mater 137(3):1624–1630.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.04.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li T, Zhu Z, Wang D, Yao C, Tang H (2006b) Characterization of floc size, strength and structure under various coagulation mechanisms. Powder Technol 168(2):104–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2006.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li RH, Gao BY, Sun JZ, Yue QY, Wang Y, Xu X (2016) Synthesis, characterization of a novel lignin-based polymer and its behavior as a coagulant aid in coagulation/ultrafiltration hybrid process. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 113:334–341.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li R, Gao B, Guo K, Yue Q, Zheng H, Wang Y (2017) Effects of papermaking sludge-based polymer on coagulation behavior in the disperse and reactive dyes wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 240:59–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.02.088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lihua S, Ruiping L, Shengji X, Yanling Y, Guibai L (2009) Enhanced As(III) removal with permanganate oxidation, ferric chloride precipitation and sand filtration as pretreatment of ultrafiltration. Desalination 243(1-3):122–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.04.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu R, Liu H, Qiang Z, Qu J, Li G, Wang D (2009) Effects of calcium ions on surface characteristics and adsorptive properties of hydrous manganese dioxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 331(2):275–280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.11.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu Z, Liu Y, Kuschk P, Wang J, Chen Y, Wang X (2016) Poly aluminum chloride (PAC) enhanced formation of aerobic granules: coupling process between physicochemical–biochemical effects. Chem Eng J 284:1127–1135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.09.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mittal H, Jindal R, Kaith BS, Maity A, Ray SS (2014) Synthesis and flocculation properties of gum ghatti and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) based biodegradable hydrogels. Carbohydr Polym 114:321–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Muxika A, Etxabide A, Uranga J, Guerrero P, de la Caba K (2017) Chitosan as a bioactive polymer: processing, properties and applications. Int J Biol Macromol 105(Pt 2):1358–1368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.07.087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nguyen TP, Hilal N, Hankins NP, Novak JT (2008) The relationship between cation ions and polysaccharide on the floc formation of synthetic and activated sludge. Desalination 227(1-3):94–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peng X, Shen S, Wang C, Li T, Li Y, Yuan S, Wen X (2017) Influence of relative proportions of cellulose and lignin on carbon-based solid acid for cellulose hydrolysis. Mol Catal 442:133–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcat.2017.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ravichandran V, Jayakrishnan A (2017) Synthesis and evaluation of anti-fungal activities of sodium alginate-amphotericin B conjugates. Int J Biol Macromol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.030
  36. Razali MAA, Ariffin A (2015) Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: flocculation behavior and mechanism. Appl Surf Sci 351:89–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.05.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rong H, Gao B, Dong M, Zhao Y, Sun S, Yanwang YQ, Li Q (2013a) Characterization of size, strength and structure of aluminum-polymer dual-coagulant flocs under different pH and hydraulic conditions. J Hazard Mater 252-253:330–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rong H, Gao B, Li J, Zhang B, Sun S, Wang Y, Yue Q, Li Q (2013b) Floc characterization and membrane fouling of polyferric-polymer dual/composite coagulants in coagulation/ultrafiltration hybrid process. J Colloid Interface Sci 412:39–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rong H, Gao B, Li R, Wang Y, Yue Q, Li Q (2014) Effect of dose methods of a synthetic organic polymer and PFC on floc properties in dyeing wastewater coagulation process. Chem Eng J 243:169–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Song W, Gao B, Xu X, Xing L, Han S, Duan P, Song W, Jia R (2016) Adsorption-desorption behavior of magnetic amine/Fe3O4 functionalized biopolymer resin towards anionic dyes from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 210:123–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.01.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tian B, Ge X, Pan G, Fan B, Luan Z (2006) Adsorption and flocculation behaviors of polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDADMA) salts: influence of counterion. Int J Miner Process 79(4):209–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2005.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wahab MA, Boubakri H, Jellali S, Jedidi N (2012) Characterization of ammonium retention processes onto cactus leaves fibers using FTIR, EDX and SEM analysis. J Hazard Mater 241-242:101–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang JP, Chen YZ, Ge XW, HQ Y (2007) Gamma radiation-induced grafting of a cationic monomer onto chitosan as a flocculant. Chemosphere 66(9):1752–1757.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.06.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang Y, Gao B, Yue Q, Wei J, Li Q (2008) The characterization and flocculation efficiency of composite flocculant iron salts–polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride. Chem Eng J 142(2):175–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.11.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang D, Wu R, Jiang Y, Chow CWK (2011) Characterization of floc structure and strength: role of changing shear rates under various coagulation mechanisms. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 379(1-3):36–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2010.11.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang YF, Gao BY, Yue QY, Wang Y, Yang ZL (2012) Removal of acid and direct dye by epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine: flocculation performance and floc aggregation properties. Bioresour Technol 113:265–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.11.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang W, Liang T, Bai H, Dong W, Liu X (2018) All cellulose composites based on cellulose diacetate and nanofibrillated cellulose prepared by alkali treatment. Carbohydr Polym 179:297–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.09.098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wei J, Gao B, Yue Q, Wang Y (2009) Effect of dosing method on color removal performance and flocculation dynamics of polyferric-organic polymer dual-coagulant in synthetic dyeing solution. Chem Eng J 151(1-3):176–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wu C, Wang Y, Gao B, Zhao Y, Yue Q (2012) Coagulation performance and floc characteristics of aluminum sulfate using sodium alginate as coagulant aid for synthetic dying wastewater treatment. Sep Purif Technol 95:180–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2012.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wu H, Liu Z, Yang H, Li A (2016) Evaluation of chain architectures and charge properties of various starch-based flocculants for flocculation of humic acid from water. Water Res 96:126–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang ZL, Gao BY, Yue QY, Wang Y (2010) Effect of pH on the coagulation performance of Al-based coagulants and residual aluminum speciation during the treatment of humic acid-kaolin synthetic water. J Hazard Mater 178(1-3):596–603.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.01.127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang Z, Liu X, Gao B, Zhao S, Wang Y, Yue Q, Li Q (2013) Flocculation kinetics and floc characteristics of dye wastewater by polyferric chloride–poly-epichlorohydrin–dimethylamine composite flocculant. Sep Purif Technol 118:583–590.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yao T, Guo S, Zeng C, Wang C, Zhang L (2015) Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres. J Hazard Mater 292:90–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.03.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yu W, Li G, Xu Y, Yang X (2009) Breakage and re-growth of flocs formed by alum and PACl. Powder Technol 189(3):439–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2008.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yu Y, Li Y, Du C, Mou H, Wang P (2017) Compositional and structural characteristics of sulfated polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera. Carbohydr Polym 165:221–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao H, Liu H, Qu J (2009) Effect of pH on the aluminum salts hydrolysis during coagulation process: formation and decomposition of polymeric aluminum species. J Colloid Interface Sci 330(1):105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao L, Li Q, Xu X, Kong W, Li X, Su Y, Yue Q, Gao B (2016) A novel Enteromorpha based hydrogel optimized with Box–Behnken response surface method: synthesis, characterization and swelling behaviors. Chem Eng J 287:537–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.11.085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhou W, Shen B, Meng F, Liu S, Zhang Y (2010) Coagulation enhancement of exopolysaccharide secreted by an Antarctic sea-ice bacterium on dye wastewater. Sep Purif Technol 76(2):215–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2010.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kangying Guo
    • 1
  • Baoyu Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ruihua Li
    • 1
  • Wenyu Wang
    • 1
  • Qinyan Yue
    • 1
  • Yan Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations