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Metal availability, soil nutrient, and enzyme activity in response to application of organic amendments in Cd-contaminated soil

Abstract

The study investigated the effects of organic amendments: green tea amendment (GTA) and oil cake amendment (OCA) on Cd bioavailability, soil nutrients, and soil enzyme activity in Cd-contaminated soil. The amendments were added to the soil at the doses of 1, 3, and 5% and were incubated for 45 days. Then, pakchoi cabbage was planted to test the remediation effect of the above two organic amendments. The diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd in GTA and OCA treatments was reduced by 14.69–27.51 and 13.75–68.77%, respectively, compared to no amendment-applied treatment. The application of GTA and OCA notably decreased the proportion of exchangeable fraction of Cd, but increased the percentage of oxide and organic-bound fraction of Cd, thereby suppressing the uptake by pakchoi cabbage. Cd concentration of aboveground parts decreased by 8.21–18.05 and 7.77–35.89% in GTA and OCA treatments, respectively. Relative to the no amendment-applied treatment, both GTA and OCA had enhanced soil nutrients and enzyme activities largely. Redundancy analysis showed that organic matter, total P, available N, and DTPA-extractable Cd significantly affected the enzyme activities. Furthermore, the application of OCA at the dose of 5% was more effective in reducing bioavailable Cd, enhancing soil available nutrients and urease and catalase activities in contaminated soil. These results indicated that oil cake should be used to immobilize metal and improve fertility and quality of Cd-contaminated soil.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript.

Funding

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 21507095), the Sichuan Province Project Education Fund (grant no. 16ZA0036), and the Sichuan Provincial Youth Science and Technology Fund (grant no. 2017JQ0035).

Author information

Correspondence to Zhanbiao Yang.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu

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Yang, Z., Liu, L., Lv, Y. et al. Metal availability, soil nutrient, and enzyme activity in response to application of organic amendments in Cd-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 2425–2435 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0671-1

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Keywords

  • Organic amendment
  • Bioavailability
  • Soil nutrient
  • Enzyme activity
  • Uptake
  • Cadmium