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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 3681–3694 | Cite as

Assessment of water resource contamination by pesticides in vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso

  • Edouard Lehmann
  • Morgan Fargues
  • Jean-Jacques Nfon Dibié
  • Yacouba Konaté
  • Luiz Felippe de Alencastro
Research Article

Abstract

This study proposes a comprehensive approach to investigate water resource contamination by pesticides under the specific climatic and hydrological conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian climate. Samples were collected from traditional wells, boreholes, and a lake in Burkina Faso. A multiresidue analysis was developed for 25 pesticides identified during field surveys. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used to confirm trends observed with grab samples. Uptake kinetics of POCIS were assessed by in situ calibration. The proposed use of nonlinear least squares regression proved to be a robust approach for estimating time-weighted average concentration in cases of nonlinear uptake. High sampling rates for triazines in a quasi-stagnant lake were attributed to warm water temperatures (30.8 ± 1.3 °C). The combination of sampling techniques during a 3-year monitoring period allowed for identifying potential interactions between resources, seasonal patterns, and origins of contaminants. Atrazine, azadirachtin, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid, and profenofos exceeded 0.1 μg L−1, indicating a potential risk for the consumers. Ecological risk assessment was performed using the Pesticide Tool Index for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. Peak concentrations of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were systematically associated with hazard to the studied taxa.

Keywords

Market gardening Pesticide residues POCIS PRC Risk assessment Multiresidue analysis GC-MS UPLC-MS/MS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dominique Grandjean for his participation in the method development and his skillful technical assistance on the project. We thank Boukary Sawadogo and Nadiah Congo for their assistance during the field and laboratory work in Burkina Faso. We thank Nicolas Estoppey and Sandrine Biau-Lalanne for their support and advice regarding methodology and data interpretation. Finally, we particularly acknowledge the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) for financing the present research through the 3E program.

Supplementary material

11356_2017_665_MOESM1_ESM.docx (864 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 864 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Central Environmental LaboratoryLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Laboratoire Eau, Dépollution, Écosystèmes et SantéInstitut International d’Ingénierie de l’Eau et de l’EnvironnementOuagadougou 01Burkina Faso

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