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Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests

Abstract

The stored grain insects cause great damage to grains under storage conditions. Synthetic insecticides and fumigants are considered as key measures to control these stored grain insect pests. However, the major issue with these chemicals is grain contamination with chemical residues and development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Biological control is considered as a potential alternative to chemical control especially with the use of pathogens, alone or in combination with selective insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate the synergism of Metarhizium anisopliae with diatomaceous earth (DE) and thiamethoxam against four insect pests on the stored wheat grains. In the first bioassay, the M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 104 and 1.4 × 106conidia/ml alone and in integration with two concentrations (250 and 500 ppm) of tested DE. The tested fungus when combined with DE and thiamethoxam possessed synergistic impact as compared to their individual efficacy. Adult mortality increased with respect to increased exposure interval and doses. In the second bioassay, M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 104 conidia/ml individually and in combination with three concentrations (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppm) of thiamethoxam. Results concluded that M. anisopliae integrated with DE and thiamethoxam provides more effective control of stored grain insect pests.

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Acknowledgements

Author(s) are highly thankful to Muhammad Yasin, Muhammad Tahir and Abdul Qayyum for their contribution during course of study. Author(s) would also like to pay special tribute to Dr. Anjum Suhail (Late), Chairman, Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad for his passionate support.

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Correspondence to Muhammad Shakeel.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Ashraf, M., Farooq, M., Shakeel, M. et al. Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 28165–28174 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0383-6

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Keywords

  • Metarhizium anisopliae
  • Diatomaceous earth
  • Thiamethoxam
  • Liposcelis paeta
  • Cryptolestes ferrugineus
  • Rhyzopertha dominica
  • Tribolium castaneum