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Assessing the stability in dry mycelial fertilizer of Penicillium chrysogenum as soil amendment via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra: organic matter’s transformation and maturity

Abstract

Utilization as dry mycelial fertilizer (DMF) produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) with an acid-heating pretreatment is a potential way. To study the transformation and stability of water-extractable organic matter in DMF-amended soil via fluorescence regional integration (FRI) of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM), a soil experiment in pot was carried out. The results showed that residual penicillin (about 32 mg/kg) was almost degraded in the first 5 days, indicating that the drug pollution was in control. The pH value, DOC, DON, and DOC/DON presented a classical profile, but germination index (GI) leveled off about 0.13 till day 13 in DMF-12% treatment due to the severe phytotoxicity. The addition of DMF significantly increased the soil microbial populations in contrast to the CON treatment. The EEM showed that the protein-like and microbial byproduct-like matters vanished on the 25th and 33rd days, whereas the fulvic-like substances appeared on the 7th day. The humic-like substances existed in original samples but their content greatly enhanced finally. The FRI results showed that P V, n/P III, n reached the highest value of 1.84 on the 25th day, suggesting that DMF maintained stable in amended soil. Because of its consistency with the results of GI and DOC/DON, the EEM-FRI has a potential to evaluate the stability of DMF in soil.

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Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by HIT Environment and Ecology Innovation Special Funds (No. HSCJ201613), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51678189).

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Correspondence to Huiling Liu.

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Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu

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Cite this article

Wang, B., Cai, C., Li, G. et al. Assessing the stability in dry mycelial fertilizer of Penicillium chrysogenum as soil amendment via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra: organic matter’s transformation and maturity. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 28258–28267 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0086-z

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Keywords

  • Penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM)
  • Dry mycelial fertilizer (DMF)
  • Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM)
  • Penicillin residue
  • Germination index (GI)
  • Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEM)