Effects of pH, initial Pb2+ concentration, and polyculture on lead remediation by three duckweed species
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Various geographical duckweed isolates have been developed for phytoremediation of lead. The Pb2+ removal efficiency of Lemna aequinoctialis, Landoltia punctata, and Spirodela polyrhiza was investigated in monoculture and polyculture at different levels of pH and initial Pb2+ concentrations. L. aequinoctialis was not sensitive to the tested pH but significantly affected by initial Pb2+ concentration, whereas synergistic effect of pH and initial Pb2+ concentration on removal efficiency of L. punctata and S. polyrhiza was found. Although the majority of polycultures showed median removal efficiency as compared to respective monocultures, some of the polycultures achieved higher Pb2+ removal efficiencies and can promote population to remove Pb2+. Besides, the three duckweed strains could be potential candidates for Pb2+ remediation as compared to previous reports. Conclusively, this study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed phytoremediation.
KeywordsDuckweed Polyculture Phytoremediation Lead removal pH
This research was funded by the Start-up Fund to Jie Tang from Chengdu University, China (2081917012), Shenzhen Knowledge and Innovation Basic Research Grant (JCYJ20160122151433832, JCYJ20150806112221114), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31301293).
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