Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 5800–5810 | Cite as

Green chemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using Penicillium aculeatum and their scolicidal activity against hydatid cyst protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus

  • Hamed Barabadi
  • Soheila HonaryEmail author
  • Milad Ali Mohammadi
  • Ehsan Ahmadpour
  • Mohammad Taghi Rahimi
  • Ahad Alizadeh
  • Farzaneh Naghibi
  • Muthupandian SaravananEmail author
Research Article


Hydatid disease is a helminth infection with various clinical complications caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The scolicidal agents have been broadly applied for inactivation of the fertile cysts up to now, but these scolicidal agents have several side effects on patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the scolicidal activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) utilizing mycelia-free culture filtrate of Penicillium aculeatum against hydatid cyst protoscolices of E. granulosus. The size and morphology of AuNPs were affirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of AuNPs showed the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bioreduction and capping. The AuNPs were formed relatively uniform with spherical shape and superior monodispersity with the average diameter of 60 nm. Consequently, various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/mL) of green synthesized AuNPs and different exposure times (10, 30, 60, and 120 min) were used against hydatid cyst protoscolices. Statistically, the difference between the scolicidal effects of AuNPs were seen extremely significant for all four concentrations and at various exposure times in comparison to the control group (P < 0.0001). The most mean protoscolex elimination ratio was 94% (0.3 mg/mL AuNPs and 120-min exposure time). The current investigation indicated that applying biogenic AuNPs may be considered as a potential scolicidal agent for cystic hydatid disease. However, further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of AuNPs in vivo.


Green synthesis Gold nanoparticles Scolicidal activity Echinococcus granulosus 



This work was financially supported by the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC) Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamed Barabadi
    • 1
  • Soheila Honary
    • 2
    Email author
  • Milad Ali Mohammadi
    • 2
  • Ehsan Ahmadpour
    • 3
  • Mohammad Taghi Rahimi
    • 4
  • Ahad Alizadeh
    • 5
    • 6
  • Farzaneh Naghibi
    • 7
  • Muthupandian Saravanan
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of PharmacyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of PharmacyMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  3. 3.Infectious and Tropical Disease Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.School of MedicineShahroud University of Medical SciencesShahroudIran
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health at Reproductive Epidemiology Research CenterRoyan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECRTehranIran
  7. 7.School of Traditional MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health SciencesMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia

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