In this study, two lab-scale baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (BSFCWs), including gravel-wood chips-slag and gravel-slag-wood chips, were operated at different intermittent aeration to evaluate the effect of artificial aeration and slow-released carbon source on the treatment efficiency of high-strength nitrogen wastewater. Results indicated that gravel-slag-wood chips extended aerobic/anaerobic alternating environment to gravel and slag zones and maintained anaerobic condition in the subsequent wood chip section. The order of gravel-slag-wood chip was more beneficial to pollutant removal. Sufficient carbon source supply resulted from wood-chip-framework substrate simultaneously obtained high removals of COD (97%), NH4 +-N (95%), and TN (94%) in BSFCWs at 2 h aeration per day. The results suggest that intermittent aeration combined with wood chips could achieve high nitrogen removal in BSFCWs.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, United Book Press, USA
Dong H, Qiang Z, Li T et al (2012) Effect of artificial aeration on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetland treating heavily polluted river water. J Environ Sci 24:596–601
Dong C, Zhu W, Zhao YQ et al (2011) Diurnal fluctuations in root oxygen release rate and dissolved oxygen budget in wetland mesocosm. Desalination 272:254–258
Fan J, Wang W, Zhang B et al (2013a) Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: impact of influent COD/N ratios. Bioresource Technol 143:461–466
Foladori P, Ruaben J, Ortigara ARC (2013) Recirculation or artificial aeration in vertical flow constructed wetlands: a comparative study for treating high load wastewater. Bioresource Technol 149:398–405
Fan J, Liang S, Zhang B et al (2013b) Enhanced organics and nitrogen removal in batch-operated vertical flow constructed wetlands by combination of intermittent aeration and step feeding strategy. Environ Sci Pollut R 20:2448–2455
Fan J, Zhang B, Zhang J et al (2013c) Intermittent aeration strategy to enhance organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Bioresource Technol 141:117–122
Hu Y, Zhao Y, Zhao X et al (2012) High rate nitrogen removal in an alum sludge-based intermittent aeration constructed wetland. Environ Sci Technol 46:4583–4590
Lee C, Fletcher TD, Sun G (2009) Nitrogen removal in constructed wetland systems. Eng Life Sci 9:11–22
Liu L, Zhao X, Zhao N et al (2013) Effect of aeration modes and influent COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance of vertical flow constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 57:10–16
Li H, Chi ZF, Yan BX et al (2016) An innovative wood-chip-framework substrate used as slow-release carbon source to treat high-strength nitrogen wastewater. J Environ Sci. doi:10.1016/j.jes.2016.07.008
Maltais-Landry G, Maranger R, Brisson J et al (2009) Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands. Water Res 43:535–545
Ozeki S, Baba I, Takaya N et al (2001) A novel C1-using denitrifier Alcaligenes sp. STC1 and its genes for copper-containing nitrite reductase and azurin. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:1206–1210
Ong SA, Uchiyama K, Inadama D et al (2010) Performance evaluation of laboratory scale up-flow constructed wetlands with different designs and emergent plants. Bioresource Technol 101:7239–7244
Pan J, Fei H, Song S et al (2015) Effects of intermittent aeration on pollutants removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Bioresource Technol 191:327–331
Saeed T, Sun G (2013) A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater. Bioresource Technol 128:438–447
Shen Z, Zhou Y, Liu J et al (2015) Enhanced removal of nitrate using starch/PCL blends as solid carbon source in a constructed wetland. Bioresource Technol 175:239–244
Tee HC, Lim PE, Seng CE et al (2012) Newly developed baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland for the enhancement of nitrogen removal. Bioresource Technol 104:235–242
Vymazal J (2007) Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 380:48–65
Wu H, Fan J, Zhang J et al (2015a) Decentralized domestic wastewater treatment using intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: impact of influent strengths. Bioresource Technol 176:163–168
Wu H, Fan J, Zhang J et al (2015b) Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:14637–14650
Wosiack PA, Lopes DD, Damianovic MHRZ et al (2015) Removal of COD and nitrogen from animal food plant wastewater in an intermittently-aerated structured-bed reactor. J Environ Manag 154:145–150
Yang Y, Zhan X, Wu S et al (2016) Effect of hydraulic loading rate on pollutant removal efficiency in subsurface infiltration system under intermittent operation and micro-power aeration. Bioresource Technol 205:174–182
Ye F, Li Y (2009) Enhancement of nitrogen removal in towery hybrid constructed wetland to treat domestic wastewater for small rural communities. Ecol Eng 35:1043–1050
Zhang L, Zhang L, Liu Y et al (2010) Effect of limited artificial aeration on constructed wetland treatment of domestic wastewater. Desalination 250:915–920
Zhang J, Huang X, Liu C et al (2005) Nitrogen removal enhanced by intermittent operation in a subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Ecol Eng 25:419–428
Zhong F, Wu J, Dai Y et al (2015) Bacterial community analysis by PCR-DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with front aeration. Appl Microbiol Biot 99:1499–1512
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41401548), Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (Nos. ES201510, HC201622), and Jilin Provincial Research Foundation for Basic Research, China (No. 20150520151JH).
1. Intermittent aeration combined with wood chips could achieve high nitrogen removal.
2. The order of gravel-slag-wood chips extended aerobic/anaerobic alternating environment.
3. Wood chips provided internal carbon source for denitrifying bacteria.
4. High COD, NH4 +-N, and TN removal was simultaneously achieved via 2 h aeration per day.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
About this article
Cite this article
Li, H., Chi, Z., Yan, B. et al. Nitrogen removal in wood chip combined substrate baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands: impact of matrix arrangement and intermittent aeration. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 5032–5038 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8227-3
- Wood chip
- Matrix arrangement
- Intermittent aeration
- Nitrogen removal
- Baffled constructed wetlands