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Methanol-enhanced removal and metabolic conversion of formaldehyde by a black soybean from formaldehyde solutions

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Abstract

Methanol regulation of some biochemical and physiological characteristics in plants has been documented in several references. This study showed that the pretreatment of methanol with an appropriate concentration could stimulate the HCHO uptake by black soybean (BS) plants. The process of methanol-stimulated HCHO uptake by BS plants was optimized using the Central Composite Design and response surface methodology for the three variables, methanol concentration, HCHO concentration, and treatment time. Under optimized conditions, the best stimulation effect of methanol on HCHO uptake was obtained. 13C-NMR analysis indicated that the H13CHO metabolism produced H13COOH, [2-13C]Gly, and [3-13C]Ser in BS plant roots. Methanol pretreatment enhanced the metabolic conversion of H13CHO in BS plant roots, which consequently increased HCHO uptake by BS plants. Therefore, methanol pretreatment might be used to increase HCHO uptake by plants in the phytoremediation of HCHO-polluted solutions.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31560071 to L.M.C.) and by the Foundation of Yunnan Province and Kunming University of Science and Technology for Training Adult and Young Leaders of Science and Technology (Grant No. 2004PY01-5 to L.M.C.).

Author information

Correspondence to Li-mei Chen.

Additional information

Hao Tan and Yun Xiong contributed equally to this work.

Responsible editor: Yi-ping Chen

Electronic supplementary material

Fig. S1

a Experimental device for measurement of HCHO translocation from BS plants after roots were treated in HCHO solutions. b Volatilized HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO treatment solutions at 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h. c HCHO adsorption curves of dead BS plants as processed according to the residual HCHO in the treatment solutions after dead BS plant roots were treated in 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions and the HCHO volatilized from the solutions. d HCHO absorption curves of living BS plants processed according to the residual HCHO in the treatment solutions after living BS plant roots were treated in 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions, the HCHO volatilized from the solutions and the HCHO adsorption by dead plants. e HCHO evaporation into the air around shoots after BS plant roots were treated in 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions for 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h. e Changes in transpiration rate after BS plant roots were treated in 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions for 2 h and12 h (GIF 1 kb)

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Fig. S2

HCHO uptake curves of 2 (2 g), 3 (4 g), 5 (6 g), 7 (8 g) and 9 (10 g) BS plants treated in 4 mM HCHO for 2, 4, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h (GIF 1 kb)

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Fig. S3

Complete root 13C NMR spectra of BS plants with and without 0.73-mM methanol pretreatment in roots following the treatment of the roots with 1.3 mM H13CHO solution for 3 h. The treatment methods are shown on the right side of the spectra. Ref (130.66 ppm), [2-13C]maleic acid. CK (control), no treatment sample (GIF 4 kb)

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Fig. S4

Complete 13C NMR spectra of BS plant roots treated in 2 mM 13CH3OH for 2 h and 24 h. Ref (130.66 ppm), [2-13C]maleic acid. CK (control), no treatment sample (GIF 2 kb)

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Fig. S5

Complete root 13C NMR spectra of BS plant roots treated in 0.73 mM CH3OH solution for 12 h. Ref (130.66 ppm), [2-13C]maleic acid. CK (control), no treatment sample (GIF 806 bytes)

High resolution image (TIFF 806 kb)

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Tan, H., Xiong, Y., Li, K. et al. Methanol-enhanced removal and metabolic conversion of formaldehyde by a black soybean from formaldehyde solutions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 4765–4777 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8212-x

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Keywords

  • HCHO removal
  • Black soybean
  • Methanol
  • Central Composite Design
  • Metabolic conversion