Allelopathic effect boosts Chrysosporum ovalisporum dominance in summer at the expense of Microcystis panniformis in a shallow coastal water body
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The increased occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial species and, with this, higher frequency of cyanobacteria blooms, closely associated with eutrophication and climate change, have attracted increasing attention worldwide. However, competition mechanisms between the different bloom-forming cyanobacteria species remain to be elucidated. In this paper, for the first time, the allelopathic effect of the cyanobacterium Chrysosporum ovalisporum on the cyanobacterium Microcystis panniformis is reported. The results of our study conducted in a Chinese shallow coastal water body demonstrated that the biomass of M. panniformis was relatively low during the C. ovalisporum blooming period. Co-cultivation of a C. ovalisporum strain with a M. panniformis strain showed strong inhibition of the growth of M. panniformis but stimulation of C. ovalisporum. Thus, filtrate of C. ovalisporum culture had a strong inhibitory effect on the performance of M. panniformis by decreasing the maximum optical quantum yield (F v/F m), the electron transport rate (ETR) of PS II and the onset of light saturation (I k) and by increasing the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of M. panniformis. Our results suggest that the inter-specific allelopathic effect plays an important role in the competition between different cyanobacteria species. We foresee the importance of C. ovalisporum to intensify in a future warmer world, not least in small- to medium-sized, warm and high conductivity coastal water bodies.
KeywordsAllelopathy Chrysosporum ovalisporum Microcystis panniformis Competition Cylindrospermopsin Bloom
This work was supported by the “Shanghai outstanding technical leaders plan” (No. 15XD1522900) and Major Projects on Control and Rectification of Water Body Pollution of China (No. 2012ZX07101-007). EJ was supported by managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress (MARS; Contract No. 603378; http://www.mars-project.eu). We would like to thank Dr. Jianming Deng from Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for his positive comments. We would also like to express our deep thanks to Anne Mette Poulsen from Aarhus University for her English assistance. The authors are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.
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