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Long-term impact of reduced tillage on water and pesticide flow in a drained context

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Abstract

Influence of more than 20 years (1988–2010) of reduced tillage (RT) practices on water and pesticide balances and dynamics is analyzed and compared to results from a conventional tillage plot (CT). The field study soils are described as silty clay stagnic luvisol, developed on a low permeable schist layer. A drainage network was set up according to French criteria (0.9 m deep, 10 m space) to avoid soil winter waterlogging. Climate is temperate oceanic and drainage generally occurs from November to March. Data were analyzed at yearly, weekly (pesticides) and hourly (water) time steps. Over the long term, cumulated drainage decreases significantly on RT (3999 mm) compared to CT (5100 mm). This differentiation becomes significant from 1999, 10 years after plowing was stopped. Strikingly, hourly drainage peak flows are higher under RT, especially during the second period (2000–2010), associated with low or no base flow. These results suggest a strong influence of the macropore network under RT practice. In particular, drainage peaks are higher at the beginning of the drainage season (mid-October to December). Consistently, pesticides applied in late autumn, which are the most quantified on this site, are often significantly more exported under RT. For atrazine, applied in spring, fluxes are linked to cumulative flow and are de facto higher under CT. For others pesticides, losses appear to be heterogeneous, with generally low or null export rates for spring application. Generally speaking, higher concentrations are measured on RT plot and explain observed exportation rate differences. Finally, there is no clear evidence of correlation between pesticide losses and long-term impacts of RT on hydrodynamics, pointing the importance of studying the short-term effect of tillage on water and especially solute flow.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the support of ARVALIS-Institut du végétal for providing data acquired by the Institute on its experimental site.

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Correspondence to R. Dairon.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Dairon, R., Dutertre, A., Tournebize, J. et al. Long-term impact of reduced tillage on water and pesticide flow in a drained context. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 6866–6877 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8123-x

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Keywords

  • Conventional tillage/no tillage
  • Hourly drained flow dynamic
  • Pesticide losses
  • Long-term study
  • Macroporosity