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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 1987–1998 | Cite as

Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals in street dust of Suzhou, China

  • Manli Lin
  • Herong Gui
  • Yao Wang
  • Weihua Peng
Research Article

Abstract

To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941.3, 410.3, 45.2, 75.6, and 225.3 mg kg−1, respectively. Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded their background values in local natural soils by 1.3–3.6-fold, whereas Fe, Mn, and V were all within their background values. However, enrichment factor analysis revealed that Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn, especially Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, were enriched in Suzhou street dust. The HMs showed no significant seasonal changes overall, but spatial distribution analysis implied that the high values of Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were mainly distributed in areas with frequent human activities. Results of multivariate techniques (e.g., Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster, and principal components analyses) suggested that Pb and Zn had complicated sources; Cu and V mainly originated from traffic sources; Fe and Mn mainly came from natural sources; and Cr was dominantly related to industrial district. Health risk assessment revealed that a single heavy metal might not cause both non-cancer and carcinogenic risks to local residents. Nevertheless, the sum of the hazard index of all selected HMs for children slightly exceeded the safety value, thereby implying that the HMs from Suzhou street dust can possibly produce significant risk to children. Cr was the priority pollutant in the study area because of its high concentration, high enrichment, and high contribution to non-cancer risk values.

Keywords

Street dust Heavy metal Pollution characteristic Source apportionment Health risk assessment Coal resource city 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41373095) and the open projects of collaborative innovation center of Suzhou regional development (2015SZXTZXKF04). The authors thank Muneeb Ur Rehman Muhammad from Beihang University for his help in the English revision of this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2016_7934_MOESM1_ESM.docx (55 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 54 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manli Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Herong Gui
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yao Wang
    • 3
  • Weihua Peng
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Resources and Civil EngineeringSuzhou UniversitySuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.National Engineering Research Center of Coal Mine Water Hazard ControllingSuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Resources and EnvironmentNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Space and EnvironmentBeihang UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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