Oxidative stress responses of Daphnia magna exposed to effluents spiked with emerging contaminants under ozonation and advanced oxidation processes
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Integration of conventional wastewater treatments with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has become of great interest to remove pharmaceuticals and their metabolites from wastewater. However, application of these technologies generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may reach superficial waters through effluents from sewage treatment plants. The main objective of the present study was to elucidate if ROS present in real effluents after biological and then chemical (single ozonation, solar photolytic ozonation, solar photocatalytic ozonation (TiO2, Fe3O4) and solar photocatalytic oxidation (TiO2)) treatments induce oxidative stress in Daphnia magna. For this, the activity of two antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and the level of lipid peroxidation were determined in Daphnia. The results of oxidative stress biomarkers studied suggest that D. magna is able to cope with the superoxide ion radical (O2·−) present in the treated effluent due to single ozonation by mainly inducing the antioxidant activity superoxide dismutase, thus preventing lipid peroxidation. Lethal effects (measured in terms of immobility) were not observed in these organisms after exposure to any solution. Therefore, in order to probe the ecological efficiency of urban wastewater treatments, studies on lethal and sublethal effects in D. magna would be advisable.
KeywordsAdvanced oxidation processes Daphnia magna Enzymatic antioxidant defenses Lipid peroxidation Pharmaceuticals
Authors wish to thank the Spanish CICYT, the European Feder (Project CTQ2012/35789/C02/01), the Consejería de Empleo, Empresa e Innovación Gobierno de Extremadura, and the Feder founds for the economic support. Azahara Espejo also thank the Consejería de Empleo, Empresa e Innovación Gobierno de Extremadura and the Feder founds for an FPI grant. Sara C. Novais would also like to acknowledge the financial support given by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through a post-doctoral research grant (SFRH/BPD/ 94500/2013).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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