Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 24, pp 24694–24710 | Cite as

Biology and management of two important Conyza weeds: a global review

  • Ali Ahsan BajwaEmail author
  • Sehrish Sadia
  • Hafiz Haider Ali
  • Khawar Jabran
  • Arslan Masood Peerzada
  • Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Review Article


Weed management is one of the prime concerns for sustainable crop production. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are two of the most problematic, noxious, invasive and widespread weeds in modern-day agriculture. The biology, ecology and interference of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis have been reviewed here to highlight pragmatic management options. Both these species share a unique set of biological features, which enables them to invade and adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinct reproductive biology and an efficient seed dispersal mechanism help these species to spread rapidly. Ability to interfere strongly and to host crop pests makes these two species worst weeds of cropping systems. These weed species cause 28–68 % yield loss in important field crops such as soybean and cotton every year. These weeds are more prevalent in no-till systems and, thus, becoming a major issue in conservation agriculture. Cultural practices such as crop rotations, seed rate manipulation, mulching, inter-row tillage and narrow row spacing may provide an effective control of these species. However, such methods are not feasible and applicable under all types of conditions. Different herbicides also provide a varying degree of control depending on crop, agronomic practices, herbicide dose, application time and season. However, both these species have evolved resistance against multiple herbicides, including glyphosate and paraquat. The use of alternative herbicides and integrated management strategies may provide better control of herbicide-resistant C. bonariensis and C. canadensis. Management plans based on the eco-biological interactions of these species may prove sustainable in the future.


Allelopathy Biological invasion Chemical control Conyza bonariensis Conyza canadensis Herbicide resistance Weed management 



Authors acknowledge that there was no financial support for this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Ahsan Bajwa
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sehrish Sadia
    • 3
  • Hafiz Haider Ali
    • 4
  • Khawar Jabran
    • 5
  • Arslan Masood Peerzada
    • 2
  • Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  2. 2.The Centre for Plant Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI)The University of QueenslandGatton/ToowoombaAustralia
  3. 3.College of Life SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy, University College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural SciencesDüzce UniversityDüzceTurkey

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