Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 23951–23958 | Cite as

Plastic ingestion by Newell’s (Puffinus newelli) and wedge-tailed shearwaters (Ardenna pacifica) in Hawaii

  • Elizabeth C. Kain
  • Jennifer L. Lavers
  • Carl J. Berg
  • André F. Raine
  • Alexander L. Bond
Research Article


The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of pollution in the marine environment. On Kaua‘i, HI, USA, 50.0 % of Newell’s (Puffinus newelli) and 76.9 % of wedge-tailed shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) fledglings necropsied during 2007–2014 contained plastic items in their digestive tract, while 42.1 % of adult wedge-tailed shearwaters had ingested plastic. For both species, the frequency of plastic ingestion has increased since the 1980s with some evidence that the mass and the number of items ingested per bird have also increased. The color of plastic ingested by the shearwaters was assessed relative to beach-washed plastics by using Jaccard’s index (where J = 1 complete similarity). The color (J = 0.65–0.68) of items ingested by both species, and the type ingested by wedge-tailed shearwaters (J = 0.85–0.87), overlapped with plastic available in the local environment indicating moderate selection for plastic color and type. This study has shown that the Hawaiian populations of shearwaters, like many seabird species, provide useful but worrying insights into plastic pollution and the health of our oceans.


Marine debris ingestion North Pacific Gyre Plastic pollution Seabird sentinel 



This project was a collaboration between the Kaua‘i Community College, the Kauai Chapter of the Surfrider Foundation, and the Kaua‘i Endangered Seabird Recovery Project (KESRP). Funding was generously provided by the Surfrider Foundation as part of its Kaua‘i Marine Debris Program, with staff time and resources provided by KESRP. We thank Save Our Shearwaters, Hawaii Department of Fish and Wildlife, and T. Anderson for additional support. Three anonymous reviewers provided valuable feedback on earlier drafts of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth C. Kain
    • 1
  • Jennifer L. Lavers
    • 2
  • Carl J. Berg
    • 3
  • André F. Raine
    • 1
  • Alexander L. Bond
    • 4
  1. 1.Kaua‘i Endangered Seabird Recovery ProjectHanapepeUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaTasmaniaAustralia
  3. 3.Kaua‘i ChapterSurfrider FoundationWaimeaUSA
  4. 4.Ardenna ResearchSandyUK

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