Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 23804–23814 | Cite as

Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB–activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil

  • Isabel Cristina Vidal Siqueira-Castro
  • Juliane Araújo Greinert-GoulartEmail author
  • Renato Rossetto
  • José Roberto Guimarães
  • Regina Maura Bueno Franco
Research Article

Abstract

The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB–activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

Keywords

Ciliates Microfauna Anaerobic-aerobic systems Wastewater treatment plants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

SANASA (Sociedade de Abastecimento de Água e Saneamento S.A.) kindly provided the activated sludge samples and provided the physicochemical and operational data. This study was supported by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation—Process 2010/16222), CAPES (Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education—Process 23038.008057/2010–13), FURB (Fundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau)—Doctoral Scholarship—application invitation 05/2008, and CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development14/2010-Edital Universal).

References

  1. Abreu AS, Zaiat M (2008) Desempenho de reator anaeróbio–aeróbio de leito fixo no tratamento de esgoto sanitário. Eng Sanit Ambient 13:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Shahwani SM, Horan NJ (1991) The use of protozoa to indicate changes in the performance of activated sludge plants. Water Res 25:633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arregui L, Liebana R, Rodriguez E, Murciano A, Conejero F, Perez-Uz B, Serrano S (2012) Analysis of the usefulness of biological parameters for the control of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in an interlaboratory study context. J Environ Monit 14:1444–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bal AS, Dhagat NN (2001) Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor—a review. Indian J Environ Health 43:1–82Google Scholar
  5. Berger H (1999) Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Monogr Biol 78:1–1080Google Scholar
  6. Berger H (2006) Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Monogr Biol 85:1–1303Google Scholar
  7. Berger H (2011) Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). Monogr Biol 90:1–741Google Scholar
  8. Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak W (1997) Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms. J Parasitol 83:575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campos JR, Reali MAP, Rossetto R, Sampaio J (2009) A wastewater treatment plant composed of UASB reactors, activated sludge with DAF and UV disinfection, in series. Water Pract Technol 4:1–8Google Scholar
  10. Canals O, Salvadó H, Auset M, Hernández C, Malfeito JJ (2013) Microfauna communities as performance indicators for an A/O shortcut biological nitrogen removal moving-bed biofilm reactor. Water Res 1:3141–3150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castillo A, Cecchi F, Mata-Alvarez J (1997) A combined anaerobic-aerobic system to treat domestic sewage in coastal areas. Water Res 31:3057–3063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CETESB - Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (2009) Microbiologia de Lodos Ativados. CETESB, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen S, Xu M, Cao H, Zhu J, Zhou K, Yang X, Gan Y, Lui W, Zhai J, Shao Y (2004) The activated-sludge fauna and performance of five sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China. Euro J Protistol 40:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chernicharo CA (2007) Reatores anaeróbios, 2ªth edn. Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental UFMG, Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar
  15. Curds CR (1992) Protozoa and water Industry. University Press Cambridge, Cambridge, 122p Google Scholar
  16. Curds CR, Cockburn A (1970) Protozoa in biological sewage treatment processes. 2. Protozoa as indicators in activated-sludge process. Water Res 4:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dieckmann J (1995) An improved Protargol impregnation for ciliates yielding reproducible results. Euro J Protistol 31:372–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dubber D, Gray NF (2011a) The influence of fundamental design parameters on ciliates community structure in Irish activated sludge systems. Eur J Protistol 47:274–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dubber D, Gray NF (2011b) The effect of anoxia and anaerobia on ciliate community in biological nutrient removal systems using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Water Res 45:2213–2226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Esteban G, Tellez C, Bautista LM (1991) Dynamics of ciliated protozoa communities in activated-sludge process. Water Res 25:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ettl M, Foissner W, Ricci N, Erra F (2000) The ciliate community (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of a municipal activated sludge plant: interations between species and environmental factors. Monogr Biol 1:1–62Google Scholar
  22. Fenchel T (1980a) Suspension feeding in ciliated protozoa: structure and function of feeding organelles. Arch Protistenkd 123:239–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fenchel T (1980b) Suspension feeding in ciliated protozoa: functional response and particle size selection. Microb Ecol 6:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Foissner W (2002) Neotypification of protists, especially ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Bull Zool Nomencl 59:165–169Google Scholar
  25. Foissner W (2014) An update of ‘basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa’. Int J Syst Evol Micrbiol 64:271–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foissner W, Berger H (1996) A user friendly guide to ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) commonly used by hydrobiologists as bioindicators in rivers, lakes and waste water, with notes in their ecology. Freshw Biol 35:375–482Google Scholar
  27. Foissner W, Blatterer H, Berger H, Kohmann F (1991) Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems—Band I: Cyrtophorida, Oligotrichida, Hypotrichia, Colpodea. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, 1/91 (in German)Google Scholar
  28. Foissner W, Berger H, Kohmann F (1992) Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems—Band II: Peritrichia, Heterotrichida, Odontostomatida. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, 5/92 (in German)Google Scholar
  29. Foissner W, Berger H, Kohmann F (1994) Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems—Band III: Hymenostomata, Prostomatida, Nassulida. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, 1/94 Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft, Heft 1/91, München (in German)Google Scholar
  30. Foissner W, Berger H, Blatterer H, Kohmann F (1995 )Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems—Band IV: Gymenostomatea, Loxodes, Suctoria. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft 1/95 (in German)Google Scholar
  31. Hu B, Qi R, An W, Xu M, Zhang Y, Bai X, Bao H, Wen Y, Gu J, Yang M (2013) Dynamics of the microfauna community in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant experiencing sludge bulking. Eur J Protistol 49:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee S, Basu S, Tyler CW, Wei IW (2004) Ciliate populations as bio-indicators at Deer Island treatment plant. Adv Environ Res 8:371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu J, Yang M, Qi R, An W, Zhou J (2008) Comparative study of protozoan communities in full-scale MWTPs in Beijing related to treatment processes. Water Res 42:1907–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lynn D (2008) The ciliate protozoa. Characterization, classification and guide to the literature, 3rd ed. Pergamon Press, New York, p 605Google Scholar
  35. Lynn DH, Small EB (2002) Phylum Ciliophora. In: Lee JJ, Bradbury PC, Leedale GF (eds) An illustrated guide to the protozoa. Society of Protozoologists, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  36. Madoni P (1994) Sludge biotic index (SBI) for the evaluation of the biological performance of activated sludge plants based on the microfauna analysis. Water Res 28:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Madoni P (1996) The sludge biotic index for the evaluation of the activated-sludge plant performance: the allocation of the ciliate Acineria uncinata to its correct functional group. Acta Protozool 35:209–214Google Scholar
  38. Madoni P (2003) Protozoa as indicator of wastewater treatment efficiency. In: Mara D, Horan N (eds) Water and wastewater microbiology. Academic Press, London, pp 361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Madoni P (2011) Protozoa in wastewater treatment processes: a minireview. Ital J Zool 78:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Madoni P, Ghetti PF (1981) The structure of ciliated protozoa communities in biological sewage-treatment plants. Hydrobiologia 83:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martín-Cereceda M, Serrano S, Guinea A (1996) A comparative study of ciliated protozoa communities in activated-sludge plants. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 21:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Martín-Cereceda M, Serrano S, Guinea A (2001) Biofilm communities and operational monitoring of a rotating biological contactor system. Water Air Soil Pollut 126:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mungray AK, Murthy ZVP (2014) Post-treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor effluents in activated sludge process-based system for anionic surfactants. Water Environ J 28:84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ntougias S, Tanasidis S, Melidis P (2011) Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor. J Hazard Mater 186:1862–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oberschmidleitner R, Aescht E (1996) Taxonomische Untersuchungen über einige Ciliaten (Ciliophora, Protozoa) aus Belebtschlämmen oberösterreichischer Kläranlagen. Beitr Naturk Oberösterreichs 4:3–30 (in German)Google Scholar
  46. Papadimitriou CA, Papatheodoulou A, Takavakoglou V, Zdragas A, Samaras P, Sakellaropoulos GP, Lazaridou M, Zalidis G (2010) Investigation of protozoa as indicators of wastewater treatment efficiency in constructed wetlands. Desalination 250:378–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pérez-Uz B, Arregui L, Calvo P, Salvadó H, Fernández N, Rodríguez E, Zornoza A, Serrano S (2010) Assessment of plausible bioindicators for plant performance in advanced wastewater treatment systems. Water Res 44:5059–5069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salvadó H, Gracia MP, Amigó JM (1995) Capability of ciliated protozoa as indicators of effluent quality in activated sludge plants. Water Res 29:1041–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SANASA – www.sanasa.com.br, accessed 30 november 2012 (in Portuguese)
  50. Serrano S, Arregui L, Pérez-Uz B, Calvo P, Guinea A (2008) Guidelines for identification of ciliates in wastewater treatments plants. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Signorile G, Molinari A, Lugoli F, Sciancalepore LP, Montemurro P, Donno AD (2010) Study of the correlation between microfauna and the macrostructure of activated sludge and the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment plants. J Prev Med Hyg 51:15–19Google Scholar
  52. Silva SBA, Silva-Neto ID (2001) Morfologia dos protozoários ciliados presentes em um reator experimental de tratamento de esgoto por processo de lodos ativados. Rev. bras. Zoociências 3:203–229Google Scholar
  53. Silva-Neto ID, Paiva TS, Dias RJP, Campos CJA, Migotto AE (2012) Redescription of Licnophora chattoni Villeneuve-Brachon, 1939 (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), associated with Zyzzyzus warreni Calder, 1988 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Eur J Protistol 48:48–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Siqueira-Castro ICV (2008) Taxonomia e morfologia de protistas ciliados presentes em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto pelo processo de lodos ativados da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Thesis of Doctorate, Federal University of Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  55. Siqueira-Castro ICV, Silva-Neto ID (2009) Morfologia de ciliados haptoriais (Protista: Litostomatea) encontrados em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Rev Bras Zoociências 11:243–252 (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  56. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. W. H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Sperling MV, Freire VH, Chernicharo CA (2001) Performance evaluation of a UASB-activated sludge system treating municipal wastewater. Water Sci Technol 43:323–328Google Scholar
  58. Standard Methods (2012) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd edn. Amer Public Health (APHA), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  59. Tocchi C, Federici E, Fidati L, Manzi R, Vincigurerra V, Petruccioli M (2012) Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater in an industrial three-reactor plant: effect of aeration regime on performances and on protozoan and bacterial communities. Water Res 46:3334–3344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tyagi VK, Subramaniyan S, Kazmi AA, Chopra AK (2008) Microbial community in conventional and extended aeration activated sludge plants in India. Ecol Indic 8:550–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Verni F, Rosati G (2011) Resting cysts: a survival strategy in Protozoa Ciliophora. Ital J Zool 78:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weisse T (2006) Freshwater ciliates as ecophysiological model organism—lesson from Daphnia, major achievements and future perspectives. Arch Hydrobiol 167:371–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yeates AM, Esteban GF (2014) Local ciliate communities associated with aquatic macrophytes. Int Microbiol 17:31–40Google Scholar
  64. Zhou K, Xu M, Dai J, Cao H (2006) The microfauna communities and operational monitoring of an activated sludge plant in China. Eur J Protistol 42:291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhou K, Xu M, Liu B, Cao H (2008) Characteristics of microfauna and their relationships with the performance of an activated sludge plant in China. J Environ Sci 20:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabel Cristina Vidal Siqueira-Castro
    • 1
  • Juliane Araújo Greinert-Goulart
    • 2
    Email author
  • Renato Rossetto
    • 3
  • José Roberto Guimarães
    • 4
  • Regina Maura Bueno Franco
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Protozoologia, Instituto de BiologiaUNICAMPCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Parasitologia, Departamento de Ciências NaturaisFURBBlumenauBrazil
  3. 3.Sociedade de Abastecimento de Água e Saneamento de CampinasCampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de Processos Oxidativos, Faculdade de Engenharia CivilUNICAMPCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations