Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 23638–23647 | Cite as

In situ stabilization of heavy metals in multiple-metal contaminated paddy soil using different steel slag-based silicon fertilizer

  • Dongfeng NingEmail author
  • Yongchao Liang
  • Alin Song
  • Aiwang Duan
  • Zhandong Liu
Research Article


Steel slag has been widely used as amendment and silicon fertilizer to alleviate the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of particle size, composition, and application rate of slag on metal immobilization in acidic soil, metals uptake by rice and rice growth. The results indicated that application of slag increased soil pH, plant-available silicon concentrations in soil, and decreased the bioavailability of metals compared with control treatment, whereas pulverous slag (S1) was more effective than granular slag (S2 and S3). The acid-extractable fraction of Cd in the spiked soil was significantly decreased with application of S1 at rates of 1 and 3 %, acid-extractable fractions of Cu and Zn were decreased when treated at 3 %. Use of S1 at both rates resulted in significantly lower Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations in rice tissues than in controls by 82.6–92.9, 88.4–95.6, and 67.4–81.4 %, respectively. However, use of pulverous slag at 1 % significantly promotes rice growth, restricted rice growth when treated at 3 %. Thus, the results explained that reduced particle size and suitable application rate of slag could be beneficial to rice growth and metals stabilization.


Steel slag Heavy metals Rice Silicon BCR 



This work was jointly supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China entitled “Immobilization of heavy metals in a contaminated paddy soil using nano-slag-based silicon fertilizer and ecological assessment” (Approved No. 51509249), The 12th 368 Five-Year Key Programs entitled “Techniques for Agricultural Use of Steel and Iron Slag: Research and Demonstration Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, China, 2013-2017”.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongfeng Ning
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yongchao Liang
    • 2
  • Alin Song
    • 3
  • Aiwang Duan
    • 1
  • Zhandong Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Institute of Farmland Irrigation ResearchChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesXinxiangChina
  2. 2.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental & Resource SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional PlanningChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

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