Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 14, pp 12589–12598 | Cite as

Magnetically recoverable TiO2-WO3 photocatalyst to oxidize bisphenol A from model wastewater under simulated solar light

  • S. Dominguez
  • M. Huebra
  • C. Han
  • P. Campo
  • M.N. Nadagouda
  • M.J. Rivero
  • I. OrtizEmail author
  • D. D. Dionysiou
Environmental Photocatalysis and Photochemistry for a Sustainable World: A Big Challenge


A novel magnetically recoverable, visible light active TiO2-WO3 composite (Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-WO3) was prepared to enable the photocatalyst recovery after the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated solar light. For comparison, the photocatalytic activity of other materials such as non-magnetic TiO2-WO3, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2, TiO2, and the commercial TiO2 P25 was also evaluated under the studied experimental conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and magnetic properties of the samples were determined. The Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-WO3 and TiO2-WO3 led to a BPA degradation of 17.50 and 27.92 %, respectively, after 2 h of the simulated solar light irradiation. Even though their activity was lower than that of P25, which degraded completely BPA after 1 h, our catalysts were magnetically separable for their further reuse in the treatment. Furthermore, the influence of the water matrix in the photocatalytic activity of the samples was studied in municipal wastewater. Finally, the identification of reaction intermediates was performed and a possible BPA degradation pathway was proposed to provide a better understanding of the degradation process.

Graphical abstract


Bisphenol A (BPA) Degradation pathway Magnetic composite Photocatalysis TiO2 WO3 



Financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and from FEDER funds (projects CTM2012-33917, CTM2015-69845-R and CTQ2015-66078-R) are gratefully acknowledged (MINECO/FEDER, UE). Sara Dominguez also thanks the FPI postgraduate research grant (BES-2013-064055) and the predoctoral mobility aid for conducting short stays in R&D Centers (EEBB-I-15-09465).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Dominguez
    • 1
  • M. Huebra
    • 2
  • C. Han
    • 3
  • P. Campo
    • 4
  • M.N. Nadagouda
    • 5
  • M.J. Rivero
    • 1
  • I. Ortiz
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. D. Dionysiou
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of CantabriaSantanderSpain
  2. 2.Dpto Química AnalíticaUniversidad País VascoBilbaoSpain
  3. 3.Environmental Engineering and Science ProgramUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.Cranfield Water Science InstituteCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

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