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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 23485–23495 | Cite as

Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water in industrial affected areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

  • Binghui ZhengEmail author
  • Yingqun Ma
  • Yanwen Qin
  • Lei Zhang
  • Yanmin Zhao
  • Wei Cao
  • Chenchen Yang
  • Chaonan Han
Research Article

Abstract

Water samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drain water (DW), major tributaries (MT), and main course of the Yangtze River (MY) in areas of three industrial parks (IPs) in Chongqing city in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Sixteen EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants were quantified to identify the effects of industrial activities on water quality of the TGR. The results showed that 11 individual PAHs were quantified and 5 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP)) were under detection limits in all of the water samples. Three-ring and four-ring PAHs were the most detected PAHs. Concentrations of individual PAHs were in the range of not detected (nd) to 24.3 ng/L. Total PAH concentrations for each site ranged from nd to 42.9 ng/L and were lower compared to those in other studies. The mean PAH concentrations for sites WWTP, DW, MT, and MY showed as follows: DW (25.9 ng/L) > MY (15.5 ng/L) > MT (14.0 ng/L) > WWTP (9.3 ng/L), and DW contains the highest PAH concentrations. Source identification ratios showed that petroleum and combustion of biomass coal and petroleum were the main sources of PAHs. The results of potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that, although PAH concentrations in MT and MY are likely harmless to ecosystem, contaminations of PAHs in DW were listed as middle levels and some management strategies and remediation actions, like strengthen clean production processes and banning illegal sewage discharging activities, etc., should be taken to lighten the ecosystem risk caused by PAHs especially risks caused by water discharging drains.

Keywords

The Three Gorges Reservoir PAHs Industrial activities Sources identification Risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was financially supported by the Major Program of the National Water Pollution Control and Management (No. 2012ZX07503-002, No. 2014ZX07104-006-01).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Binghui Zheng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yingqun Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yanwen Qin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lei Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yanmin Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Cao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chenchen Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chaonan Han
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Source ProtectionChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina

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