Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 22, pp 22530–22541 | Cite as

Phytotoxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals on the germination of Lactuca sativa and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

  • Ma Rosa PinoEmail author
  • Selene Muñiz
  • Jonatan Val
  • Enrique Navarro
Research Article


Pharmaceuticals reach terrestrial environments through the application of treated wastewaters and biosolids to agricultural soils. We have investigated the toxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals, classified as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood lipid-lowering agents, β-blockers and antibiotics, in two photosynthetic organisms. Twelve pharmaceuticals caused inhibitory effects on the radicle and hypocotyl elongation of Lactuca sativa seeds. The EC50 values obtained were in the range of 170–5656 mg L−1 in the case of the radicle and 188–4558 mg L−1 for the hypocotyl. Propranolol was the most toxic drug for both root and hypocotyl elongation, followed by the NSAIDs, then gemfibrozil and tetracycline. Other effects, such as root necrosis, inhibition of root growth and curly hairs, were detected. However, even at the highest concentrations tested (3000 mg L−1), seed germination was not affected. NSAIDs decreased the photosynthetic yield of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but only salicylic acid showed EC50 values below 1000 mg L−1. The first effects detected at low concentrations, together with the concentrations found in environmental samples, indicate that the use of biosolids and wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals should be regulated and their compositions assessed in order to prevent medium- and long-term impacts on agricultural soils and crops.


Pharmaceuticals Phytotoxicity Lactuca sativa Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Biosolids Wastewaters 

Supplementary material

11356_2016_7446_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (532 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 531 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ma Rosa Pino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Selene Muñiz
    • 2
  • Jonatan Val
    • 1
  • Enrique Navarro
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Health SciencesSan Jorge UniversityZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Pyrenean Institute of Ecology, CSICZaragozaSpain

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